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Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.

Microscopy and Staining: Gram, Capsule, and Endospore Staining

JoVE 10513

Source: Rhiannon M. LeVeque1, Natalia Martin1, Andrew J. Van Alst1, and Victor J. DiRita1
1 Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States of America


Bacteria are diverse microorganisms found nearly everywhere on Earth. Many properties help distinguish them from…

 Microbiology

Gram Staining of Bacteria from Environmental Sources

JoVE 10092

Source: Laboratories of Dr. Ian Pepper and Dr. Charles Gerba - Arizona University
Demonstrating Author: Luisa Ikner


The spectrum of research in environmental microbiology is broad in scope and application potential. Whether the work is bench-scale with known bacterial isolates, or in the field collecting soil or water samples…

 Environmental Microbiology

Bacterial Signaling

JoVE 10713

At times, a group of bacteria behaves like a community. To achieve this, they engage in quorum sensing, the perception of higher cell density that results in a shift in gene expression. Quorum sensing involves both extracellular and intracellular signaling. The signaling cascade starts with a molecule called an autoinducer (AI). Individual bacteria produce AIs that move out of the bacterial cell membrane into the extracellular space. AIs can move passively along a concentration gradient out of the cell, or be actively transported across the bacterial membrane. When cell density in the bacterial populations is low, the AIs diffuse away from the bacteria, keeping the environmental concentration of AIs low. As bacteria reproduce and continue to excrete AIs, the concentration of AIs increases, eventually reaching a threshold concentration. This threshold permits AIs to bind membrane receptors on the bacteria, triggering changes in gene expression across the whole bacterial community. Many bacteria are broadly classified as gram positive or gram negative. These terms refer to the color that the bacteria take on when treated with a series of staining solutions which were developed by Hans Christian Joachim Gram over a century ago. If bacteria pick up a purple color, they are gram-positive; if they look red, they are gram-negative. These stain colors are pic

 Core: Cell Signaling

Microbial and Fungal Diversity - Student Protocol

JoVE 10602

Examining Microbial Colony Structures
To begin, collect your allocated culture plates and then remove the Parafilm and lid from one of them.
Place the uncovered plate under a dissecting microscope and then observe the individual communities within each quadrant of the plate.
As the colonies are identified, fill out the observed colony…

 Lab Bio

Microbial and Fungal Diversity- Concept

JoVE 10601

Bacteria and fungi are two highly diverse groups of organisms that can have significant beneficial or detrimental impacts on human health. For this reason, it is important to understand and distinguish between individual species of these groups. As you will recall, biological taxonomists group organisms based on their phylogenetic relatedness. The three domains of life, Bacteria, Archaea, and…

 Lab Bio

Microbial and Fungal Diversity - Prep Student

JoVE 10638

Nutrient Agar and Bacterial Culture Plate Preparation
Add 23 g of nutrient agar to a 2,000 mL beaker containing 1 L of distilled water 4 – 5 days before the activity.
Place the beaker on a hotplate and set the hotplate to high, stirring the mixture with a stirring rod.
When the agar has dissolved into the water, use a hot pad to…

 Lab Bio

Antimicrobial Peptides Produced by Selective Pressure Incorporation of Non-canonical Amino Acids

1Department of Biocatalysis, Institute of Chemistry, Technische Universität Berlin, 2Department of Bioenergetics, Institute of Chemistry, Technische Universität Berlin, 3Molecular Genetics Group, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute, Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Groningen

JoVE 57551

 Bioengineering

A Method to Assess Bacteriocin Effects on the Gut Microbiota of Mice

1Departamento de Biotecnología, Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (IATA), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), 2Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), 3Departamento de Nutrición, Bromatología y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), 4Faculty of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU)

JoVE 56053

 Biology

Probiotic Studies in Neonatal Mice Using Gavage

1Department of Experimental Medicine, University of British Columbia, 2Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, 3Department of Epidemiology and Pediatrics, University of Nebraska Medical Centre, 4Animal Care Services, University of British Columbia

JoVE 59074

 Immunology and Infection

A Method to Define the Effects of Environmental Enrichment on Colon Microbiome Biodiversity in a Mouse Colon Tumor Model

1Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah, 2Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah

JoVE 57182

 Cancer Research

Investigating the Detrimental Effects of Low Pressure Plasma Sterilization on the Survival of Bacillus subtilis Spores Using Live Cell Microscopy

1Department of Radiation Biology, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Space Microbiology Research Group, German Aerospace Center (DLR e.V.), 2Institute of Electrical Engineering and Plasma Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Ruhr-University Bochum, 3Institute of Electrical Engineering and Plasma Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Biomedical Applications of Plasma Technology, Ruhr-University Bochum, 4Advanced Light and Electron Microscopy (ZBS 4), Robert Koch Institute

JoVE 56666

 Biology

Application of Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Nitric Oxide (NO•) Probes, the geNOps, for Real-time Imaging of NO• Signals in Single Cells

1Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Medical University of Graz

JoVE 55486

 Biology

Methodology for the Study of Horizontal Gene Transfer in Staphylococcus aureus

1Division of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 2Department of Basic Biomedical Science, Universidad Europea de Madrid, 3Human Biology Program, School of Integrative and Global Majors, University of Tsukuba, 4Laboratory of Nosocomial Infections, Department of Bacteriology, Centro Nacional de MicrobiologÍa, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 5Division of Microbiology, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Universidad Complutense, 6Biology of Gram-Positive Pathogens, Department of Microbiology, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France, 7ERL3526, CNRS, Paris, France

JoVE 55087

 Immunology and Infection
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