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Group Homes: Housing for groups of patients, children, or others who need or desire emotional or physical support. They are usually established as planned, single housekeeping units in residential dwellings that provide care and supervision for small groups of residents, who, although unrelated, live together as a family.

Series and Parallel Resistors

JoVE 10289

Source: Yong P. Chen, PhD, Department of Physics & Astronomy, College of Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN

This experiment demonstrates how current is distributed in resistors connected in series or parallel, and thus describes how to calculate the total "effective" resistance. Using Ohm's law, it possible to convert between the voltage and current through a resistance, if the resistance is known. For two resistors connected in series, (meaning that they are wired one after the other), the same current will flow through them. The voltages will add up to a "total voltage", and thus, the total "effective resistance" is the sum of the two resistances. This is sometimes called a "voltage divider" because the total voltage is divided between the two resistors in proportion to their individual resistances. For two resistors connected in parallel, (meaning that they are both wired between two shared terminals), the current is split between the two while they share the same voltage. In this case, the reciprocal of the total effective resistance will equal the sum of the reciprocals of the two resistances. Series and parallel resistors are a key component to most circuits and influence how electricity


 Physics II

A Method for Quantifying Upper Limb Performance in Daily Life Using Accelerometers

1Program in Physical Therapy, Washington University School of Medicine, 2Program in Occupational Therapy, Washington University School of Medicine, 3Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 5Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University

JoVE 55673


 Medicine

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Rapid Fractionation and Isolation of Whole Blood Components in Samples Obtained from a Community-based Setting

1Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 3Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, 4Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 5Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 6Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 7Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Wayne State University School of Medicine

JoVE 52227


 Medicine

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Rodent Handling and Restraint Techniques

JoVE 10221

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN 

It has been demonstrated that even minimal handling of mice and rats is stressful to the animals. Handling for cage changing and other noninvasive procedures causes an increase in heart rate, blood pressure, and other physiological parameters, such as serum corticosterone levels. Fluctuations can continue for up to several hours. The methods of restraint required for injections and blood withdrawals also cause physiological changes that can potentially affect scientific data. Training in the proper handling of mice and rats is required to minimize the effects to the animals.1 Mice and rats can be restrained manually with restraint devices, or with chemical agents. Manual methods and the use of restraint devices are covered in this manuscript. All restraint methods include the process of lifting the animals from their home cage.


 Lab Animal Research

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Ostracism: Effects of Being Ignored Over the Internet

JoVE 10336

Source: Peter Mende-Siedlecki & Jay Van Bavel—New York University

Social ostracism is defined as being ignored and excluded in the presence of others. This experience is a pervasive and powerful social phenomenon, observed in both animals and humans, throughout all stages of human development, and across all manner of dyadic relationships, cultures, and social groups and institutions. Some have argued that ostracism serves a social regulatory function, which can enhance group cohesion and fitness by removing unwanted elements.1 As such, the feeling of ostracism can serve as a warning to alter one’s behavior, in order to rejoin with the group.2 Research in social psychology has focused extensively on the affective and behavioral consequences of social ostracism. For example, individuals who have been ostracized report feeling depressed, lonely, anxious, frustrated, and helpless,3 and while they may now evaluate the source of their ostracism more negatively, they will also often try to ingratiate themselves to them.2 Furthermore, it has been speculated that the fear of ostracism is ultimately driven by a strong need to belong and to feel included, and serves as a social pressure leading to conformity, compliance, and impression ma


 Social Psychology

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Design and Implementation of an fMRI Study Examining Thought Suppression in Young Women with, and At-risk, for Depression

1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, 2McMaster Integrative Neuroscience Discovery and Study, McMaster University, 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Calgary, 4Department of Psychology, Neuroscience & Behaviour, McMaster University

JoVE 52061


 Behavior

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Application of Group Theory to IR Spectroscopy

JoVE 10442

Source: Tamara M. Powers, Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University

Metal carbonyl complexes are used as metal precursors for the synthesis of organometallic complexes as well as catalysts. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is one of the most utilized and informative characterization methods of CO containing compounds. Group theory, or the use of mathematics to describe the symmetry of a molecule, provides a method to predict the number of IR active C-O vibrational modes within a molecule. Experimentally observing the number of C-O stretches in the IR is a direct method to establish the geometry and structure of the metal carbonyl complex. In this video, we will synthesize the molybdenum carbonyl complex Mo(CO)4[P(OPh)3]2, which can exist in the cis- and trans-forms (Figure 1). We will use group theory and IR spectroscopy to determine which isomer is isolated. Figure 1. The cis- and trans-isomers of Mo(CO)4[P(OPh)3]2.


 Inorganic Chemistry

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Nucleophilic Substitution

JoVE 10465

Source: Vy M. Dong and Daniel Kim, Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA

Nucleophilic substitution reactions are among the most fundamental topics covered in organic chemistry. A nucleophilic substitution reaction is one where a nucleophile (electron-rich Lewis base) replaces a leaving group from a carbon atom.

SN1 (S = Substitution, N = Nucleophilic, 1 = first-order kinetics) SN2 (S = Substitution, N = Nucleophilic, 2 = second-order kinetics) This video will help to visualize the subtle differences between an SN1 and SN2 reaction and what factors help to speed up each type of nucleophilic substitution reaction. The first section will focus on reactions that will help to better understand and learn about nucleophilic substitution reactions. The second section will focus on a real-world example of a substitution reaction.


 Organic Chemistry II

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Creating the Minimal Group Paradigm

JoVE 10310

Source: Julian Wills & Jay Van Bavel—New York University

The study of intergroup relations, such as prejudice, conflict, and discrimination, has always been a central topic in social psychology. Does discrimination stem from competition with other groups, a history of conflict, or derogatory stereotypes? Despite an abundance of real-world examples, the ingredients that lead to intergroup discrimination are often unclear. To help solve this problem, a group of psychologists created "minimal groups" to strip away confounds like monetary self-interest and a history of conflict that are normally involved in intergroup discrimination. In minimal groups, participants are randomly assigned to completely novel groups. Thus, any consequences emerging from this minimal group induction must stem from identifying with a social group and separating the social world into "us" and "them." Research using minimal groups has shown that, despite the arbitrary nature of group membership, participants willingly discriminate by favoring members of their in-group over members of the out-group. The minimal group paradigm is widely used in social psychology to study the most basic elements of intergroup relations. This method was first introduced in a 1971 paper calle


 Social Psychology

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A Novel Method for Involving Women of Color at High Risk for Preterm Birth in Research Priority Setting

1School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, 2UCSF California Preterm Birth Initiative, University of California, San Francisco, 3School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, 4San Francisco Black Infant Health Program, 5Homeless Prenatal Program, San Francisco, CA

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JoVE 56220


 JoVE In-Press

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Conscious and Non-conscious Representations of Emotional Faces in Asperger's Syndrome

1Institute of Statistical Science, Academia Sinica, 2Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, 3Department of Psychology, Fo Guang University, 4Department of Electrical Engineering, Fu Jen Catholic University, 5State Research Institute of Physiology and Basic Medicine, 6Novosibirsk State University, 7Imaging Research Center, Taipei Medical University

JoVE 53962


 Behavior

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Morris Water Maze Test: Optimization for Mouse Strain and Testing Environment

1Department of Psychology, Behavioral Neuroscience, West Virginia University, 2Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, West Virginia University, 3Department of Neurology, N. Bud Grossman Center for Memory Research and Care, University of Minnesota, 4Department of Neuroscience, N. Bud Grossman Center for Memory Research and Care, University of Minnesota, 5GRECC, VA Medical Center, 6Center for Neuroscience, Center for Basic and Translational Stroke Research, West Virginia University

JoVE 52706


 Behavior

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Gene Regulation and Targeted Therapy in Gastric Cancer Peritoneal Metastasis: Radiological Findings from Dual Energy CT and PET/CT

1Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 3GE Healthcare China, 4Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center

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JoVE 56526


 JoVE In-Press

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The Multi-group Experiment

JoVE 10057

Source: Laboratories of Gary Lewandowski, Dave Strohmetz, and Natalie Ciarocco—Monmouth University

A multi-group design is an experimental design that has 3 or more conditions/groups of the same independent variable. This video demonstrates a multi-group experiment that examines how different interethnic ideologies (multiculturalism and color-blind) influence feelings about diversity and actions toward and out-group member. In providing an overview of how a researcher conducts a multi-group experiment, this video shows viewers how to distinguish levels in variables, common types of conditions/groups to use (including placebo and empty-control conditions/groups), the process of conducting the study, the collection of results, and the consideration of their implications.   


 Experimental Psychology

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