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Head Movements: Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.

The Vestibular System

JoVE 10856

The vestibular system is a set of inner ear structures that provide a sense of balance and spatial orientation. This system is comprised of structures within the labyrinth of the inner ear, including the cochlea and two otolith organs—the utricle and saccule. The labyrinth also contains three semicircular canals—superior, posterior, and horizontal—that are oriented on different planes. All of these structures contain vestibular hair cells—the sensory receptors of the vestibular system. In the otolith organs, the hair cells sit beneath a gelatinous layer called the otolithic membrane, which contains otoconia—calcium carbonate crystals—making it relatively heavy. When the head is tilted, the otolithic membrane shifts, bending the stereocilia on the hair cells. In the semicircular canals, the cilia of the hair cells are contained within a gelatinous cupula, which is surrounded by endolymph fluid. When the head experiences movements, such as rotational acceleration and deceleration, the fluid moves, bending the cupula and the cilia within it. Similar to the auditory hair cells, displacement towards the tallest cilium causes mechanically-gated ion channels to open, depolarizing the cell and increasing neurotransmitter release. Displacement towards the shortest cilium hyperpolarizes the cell and decreases neurotr

 Core: Sensory Systems

Ear Exam

JoVE 10148

Source: Richard Glickman-Simon, MD, Assistant Professor, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, MA


This video describes the examination of the ear, beginning with a review of its surface and interior anatomy (Figure 1). The cartilaginous auricle consists of the helix,…

 Physical Examinations II

Combining Eye-tracking Data with an Analysis of Video Content from Free-viewing a Video of a Walk in an Urban Park Environment

1Visiting Professor, Dipartimento di Scienze Agro-Ambientali e Territoriali, Università degli Studi di Bari, 2Centre for Urban Research, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT University), 3School of Software and Electrical Engineering, Swinburne University of Technology, 4Faculty of Civil Engineering, Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, 5School of Science, Australian Catholic University

JoVE 58459

 Environment

Recording Brain Electromagnetic Activity During the Administration of the Gaseous Anesthetic Agents Xenon and Nitrous Oxide in Healthy Volunteers

1Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University of Technology, 2Department of Anaesthesia and Pain Management, St. Vincent's Hospital Melbourne, 3Brain and Psychological Science Research Centre, Swinburne University of Technology, 4Department of Anaesthesiology, University of Auckland

JoVE 56881

 Neuroscience

Interictal High Frequency Oscillations Detected with Simultaneous Magnetoencephalography and Electroencephalography as Biomarker of Pediatric Epilepsy

1Fetal-Neonatal Neuroimaging and Developmental Science Center, Division of Newborn Medicine, Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 3Division of Epilepsy Surgery, Department of Neurosurgery, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 4Division of Epilepsy and Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Neurology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School

JoVE 54883

 Medicine

Local and Global Methods of Assessing Thermal Nociception in Drosophila Larvae

1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 2Scholars Academy/MARC Scholar, University of Houston-Downtown, 3Genes and Development Graduate Program, University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 4Neuroscience Graduate Program, University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

JoVE 3837

 Neuroscience

Non-Invasive Modulation and Robotic Mapping of Motor Cortex in the Developing Brain

1Department of Neurosciences, University of Calgary, 2Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, 3Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, 4Department of Pediatrics, University of Calgary, 5Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary, 6Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, 7Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary

JoVE 59594

 Neuroscience

Simultaneous Eye Tracking and Single-Neuron Recordings in Human Epilepsy Patients

1Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, and Rockefeller Neuroscience Institute, West Virginia University, 2Departments of Neurosurgery and Neurology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 3Center for Neural Science and Medicine, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 4Division of Biology and Biological Engineering, California Institute of Technology

JoVE 59117

 Behavior

Studying Brain Function in Children Using Magnetoencephalography

1ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders, Macquarie University, 2Department of Cognitive Science, Macquarie University, 3Aston Brain Centre, School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, 4Department of Linguistics, Macquarie University

JoVE 58909

 Neuroscience

Conducting Hyperscanning Experiments with Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

1Child Neuropsychology Section, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen University, 2JARA-Brain Institute II, Molecular Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, RWTH Aachen & Research Centre Juelich, 3Lehrstuhl II für Mathematik, RWTH Aachen University, 4Translational Brain Research in Psychiatry and Neurology, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics, and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Aachen

JoVE 58807

 Neuroscience

Using Optical Coherence Tomography and Optokinetic Response As Structural and Functional Visual System Readouts in Mice and Rats

1Department of Neurology, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, 2Department of Cell Physiology, Faculty of Biology and Biotechnology, Ruhr-University Bochum, 3Division of Neuroinflammation and Glial Biology, Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco

JoVE 58571

 Neuroscience

Movement-Related Changes in Cortico-Pallidal Coupling Revealed by Simultaneous Intracranial and Magnetoencephalography Recordings in Dystonia Patients

1Movement Disorders and Neuromodulation Unit, Department of Neurology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 2Department of Neurosurgery, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 3Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Institut Berlin

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56659

 JoVE In-Press

Using Fiberless, Wearable fNIRS to Monitor Brain Activity in Real-world Cognitive Tasks

1Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Malet Place Engineering Building, University College London, 2Infrared Imaging Lab, Institute for Advanced Biomedical Technology (ITAB), Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, University of Chieti-Pescara, 3Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Alexandra House, University College London

JoVE 53336

 Behavior

Assessing the Multiple Dimensions of Engagement to Characterize Learning: A Neurophysiological Perspective

1Department of Didactics, Université du Québec à Montréal, 2Department of IT and Tech3Lab, HEC Montreal, 3Department of Marketing and Tech3Lab, HEC Montreal, 4Department of Specialized Education, Université du Québec à Montréal

JoVE 52627

 Behavior

Functional Imaging of Auditory Cortex in Adult Cats using High-field fMRI

1Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Western Ontario, 2Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, 3Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, 4Brain and Mind Institute, University of Western Ontario, 5Centre for Functional and Metabolic Mapping, Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, 6Cerebral Systems Laboratory, University of Western Ontario, 7National Centre for Audiology, University of Western Ontario

JoVE 50872

 Neuroscience
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