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Heart Block: Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the Sinoatrial node and the right atrium (Sa block) or between atria and ventricles (Av block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.
 JoVE Medicine

Method of Isolated Ex Vivo Lung Perfusion in a Rat Model: Lessons Learned from Developing a Rat EVLP Program

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 2Davis Heart & Lung Research Institute, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 3The Collaboration for Organ Perfusion, Protection, Engineering and Regeneration (COPPER) Laboratory, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 4Division of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Surgery, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 5Departments of Pediatrics and Internal Medicine, Ohio State University, 6Advanced Lung Disease Program, Lung and Heart-Lung Transplant Programs, Nationwide Children's Hospital, 7Division of Transplantation, Department of Surgery, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center


JoVE 52309

 JoVE Biology

Drosophila Preparation and Longitudinal Imaging of Heart Function In Vivo Using Optical Coherence Microscopy (OCM)

1Bioengineering Program, Lehigh University, 2Center for Photonics and Nanoelectronics, Lehigh University, 3Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Lehigh University, 4State Key Laboratory of Software Engineering, Wuhan University, 5Genetics and Aging Research Unit, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School


JoVE 55002

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

In Situ Detection of Autoreactive CD4 T Cells in Brain and Heart Using Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Dextramers

1School of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, 2Center for Biotechnology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, 3Nebraska Center for Virology and School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska, Lincoln


JoVE 51679

 JoVE In-Press

Electroencephalographic, Heart Rate, and Galvanic Skin Response Assessment for an Advertising Perception Study: Application to Antismoking Public Service Announcements

1Department of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, 2Department of Communication and Social Research, Sapienza University of Rome, 3Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic, and Orthopedic Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, 4BrainSigns SRL

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JoVE 55872

 JoVE In-Press

Improving Strength, Power, Muscle Aerobic Capacity, and Glucose Tolerance through Short-term Progressive Strength Training among Elderly People

1Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, 2Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, 3Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 55518

 JoVE Medicine

Chick Heart Invasion Assay for Testing the Invasiveness of Cancer Cells and the Activity of Potentially Anti-invasive Compounds

1Department of Radiation Oncology and Experimental Cancer Research, University of Ghent, 2Department of Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology, University of Ghent, 3Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi


JoVE 52792

 JoVE Medicine

Development of an Algorithm to Perform a Comprehensive Study of Autonomic Dysreflexia in Animals with High Spinal Cord Injury Using a Telemetry Device

1International Collaboration on Repair Discoveries (ICORD), Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, 2Department of Medicine, Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of British Columbia, GF Strong Rehabilitation Centre


JoVE 52809

 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations I

Cardiac Exam III: Abnormal Heart Sounds

JoVE Science Education

Source: Suneel Dhand, MD, Attending Physician, Internal Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Having a fundamental understanding of normal heart sounds is the first step toward distinguishing the normal from the abnormal. Murmurs are sounds that represent turbulent and abnormal blood flow across a heart valve. They are caused either by stenosis (valve area too narrow) or regurgitation (backflow of blood across the valve) and are commonly heard as a "swishing" sound during auscultation. Murmurs are graded from 1 to 6 in intensity (1 being the softest and 6 the loudest) (Figure 1). The most common cardiac murmurs heard are left-sided murmurs of the aortic and mitral valves. Right-sided murmurs of the pulmonary and tricuspid valves are less common. Murmurs are typically heard loudest at the anatomical area that corresponds with the valvular pathology. Frequently, they also radiate to other areas. Figure 1. The Levine scale used to grade murmur intensity. In addition to the two main heart sounds, S1 and S2, which are normally produced by the closing of heart valves, there are two other abnormal heart sounds, known as S3 and S4. These are also known as

 JoVE In-Press

Preparation of Acute Myocardial Tissue Slices from Biopsies of Human Neonates and Infants with Congenital Heart Disease for Physiological Measurements

1Department of Pediatric Cardiology, University Hospital of Cologne, 2Institute for Neurophysiology, University of Cologne, 3Department of Cardio-thoracic Surgery, University Hospital of Cologne, 4Department of General Pediatrics, Neonatology and Pediatric Cardiology, University Children's Hospital, Heinrich Heine University, 5Children's Hospital for Wales, University Hospital of Wales

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JoVE 55566

 JoVE Developmental Biology

Rapid Acquisition of 3D Images Using High-resolution Episcopic Microscopy

1Department of Pediatric Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital & Yuying Children's Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, 2Departments of Urology, Boston Children's Hospital, 3Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School, 4Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences


JoVE 54625

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