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Heart Rate: The number of times the Heart ventricles contract per unit of time, usually per minute.

Physiology of the Circulatory System- Concept

JoVE 10625

Homeostasis

Conditions in the external environment of an organism can change rapidly and drastically. To survive, organisms must maintain a fairly constant internal environment, which involves continuous regulation of temperature, pH, and other factors. This balanced state is known as homeostasis, which describes the processes by which organisms maintain their optimal internal…

 Lab Bio

Physiological Correlates of Emotion Recognition

JoVE 10297

Source: Laboratories of Jonas T. Kaplan and Sarah I. Gimbel—University of Southern California


The autonomic nervous system (ANS) controls the activity of the body's internal organs and regulates changes in their activity depending on the current environment. The vagus nerve, which innervates many of the internal organs, is an…

 Neuropsychology

Measuring Vital Signs

JoVE 10107

Source: Meghan Fashjian, ACNP-BC, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston MA


The vital signs are objective measurements of a patient's clinical status. There are five commonly accepted vital signs: blood pressure, heart rate, temperature, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation. In many practices, pain is…

 Physical Examinations I

The Parasympathetic Nervous System

JoVE 10839

The parasympathetic nervous system is one of the two major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. This parasympathetic system is responsible for regulating many unconscious functions, such as heart rate and digestion. It is composed of neurons located in both the brain and the peripheral nervous system that send their axons to target muscles, organs, and glands.

Activation of the parasympathetic system tends to have a relaxing effect on the body, promoting functions that replenish resources and restore homeostasis. It is therefore sometimes referred to as the “rest and digest” system. The parasympathetic system predominates during calm times when it is safe to devote resources to basic “housekeeping” functions without a threat of attack or harm. The parasympathetic nervous system can be activated by various parts of the brain, including the hypothalamus. Preganglionic neurons in the brainstem and sacral part of the spinal cord first send their axons out to ganglia—clusters of neuronal cell bodies—in the peripheral nervous system. These ganglia contain the connections between pre- and postganglionic neurons and are located near the organs or glands that they control. From here, postganglionic neurons send their axons onto target tissues—generally smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, or glands. Typic

 Core: Nervous System

Physiology of the Circulatory System - Student Protocol

JoVE 10570

Measuring Circulatory System Function in Humans
Before starting the experiment go to the front of the room and collect an alcohol swab, a sphygmomanometer, and a stethoscope.
Clean the earpieces with the alcohol swab and then insert them into your ears.
To check if the stethoscope is in the on position, gently tap the flat metal disc called…

 Lab Bio

The Sympathetic Nervous System

JoVE 10840

The sympathetic nervous system—one of the two major divisions of the autonomic nervous system—is activated in times of stress. It prepares the body to meet the challenges of a demanding circumstance while inhibiting essential body functions—such as digestion—that are a lower priority at the moment.

As a student, you may have had the experience of walking into class and finding a surprise exam that you were not expecting. In the moment of realization, you may sense your gut tighten, your mouth goes dry, and your heart starts to race all of a sudden. These are signs of the sympathetic system taking over in preparation to react. While you may not be in immediate danger, the system has evolved to facilitate immediate reaction to stress or threats: blood is directed away from the digestive system and skin to increase energy supplies to muscles. Furthermore, the heart rate, and blood flow increase, and pupils dilate to maximize visual perception. At the same time, the adrenal gland releases epinephrine into the circulatory system. Your body is now primed to take action, whether that means to swiftly flee from danger or fight whatever threat may be at hand. The sympathetic nervous system can be activated by various parts of the brain, with the hypothalamus playing a particularly important role. Sympathetic instructions from the central

 Core: Nervous System

Acquisition and Analysis of an ECG (electrocardiography) Signal

JoVE 10473

Source: Peiman Shahbeigi-Roodposhti and Sina Shahbazmohamadi, Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut


An electrocardiograph is a graph recorded by electric potential changes occurring between electrodes placed on a patient's torso to demonstrate cardiac activity. An ECG signal…

 Biomedical Engineering

Allergic Reactions

JoVE 10901

We speak of an allergy when the immune system triggers a response against a benign foreign structure, like food, pollen or pet dander. These elicitors are called allergens. If the immune system of a hypersensitive individual was primed against a specific allergen, it will trigger allergic symptoms during every subsequent encounter of the allergen. Symptoms can be mild, such as hay fever, to severe, such as potentially fatal anaphylactic shock. The immune system is crucial for defending an organism against bacteria, viruses, fungi, toxins, and parasites. However, in a hypersensitive response, it can be triggered by harmless substances and cause unpleasant or potentially life-threatening overreactions, called allergies. The first step toward establishing an allergy is sensitization. For instance, an individual becomes allergic to the pollen of ragweed when, for the first time, immune cells in the respiratory passage take up the pollen and degrade the allergens into fragments. These immune cells are called antigen-presenting cells, or APCs, because they display the degraded allergen fragments on their surface. Examples of APCs are dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells. Subsequently, APCs activate encountered Type 2 helper T cells (Th2). The activated Th2 then release chemical signals (e.g., cytokines) that cause B cells to differen

 Core: Immune System

Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axis

JoVE 10879

The response to stress—be it physical or psychological, acute or chronic—involves activation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis. The HPA axis is part of the neuroendocrine system because it involves both neuronal and hormonal communication. Its function is to regulate homeostatic systems—metabolic, cardiovascular, and immune—providing the necessary means to respond to a stressor. In response to stress, the neurons in the hypothalamus release corticotropin-releasing hormone, or CRH, into the bloodstream. CRH takes a short journey to the pituitary gland where it stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone, or ACTH. The site of action for ACTH are the adrenal glands which lay just on the surface of the kidneys. When stimulated, the adrenal glands release two types of stress messages. Neural stimulation initiates the first message—the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine from the adrenal medulla. This activates the sympathetic nervous system resulting in elevated heart rate, blood flow, and respiration—processes designed to activate states of alertness and arousal. These two chemicals are also referred to as adrenaline and noradrenaline, respectively. ACTH initiates the second message—the release of glucocorticoids by the adrenal cortex. In humans, cortisol is the primary hormone

 Core: Endocrine System

Rodent Handling and Restraint Techniques

JoVE 10221

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN 


It has been demonstrated that even minimal handling of mice and rats is stressful to the animals. Handling for cage changing and other noninvasive procedures causes an increase in heart rate, blood pressure, and other physiological…

 Lab Animal Research

What is a Nervous System?

JoVE 10838

The nervous system is the collection of specialized cells responsible for maintaining an organism’s internal environment and coordinating the interaction of an organism with the external world—from the control of essential functions such as heart rate and breathing to the movement needed to escape danger.

The vertebrate nervous system is divided into two major parts: the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS includes the brain, spinal cord, and retina—the sensory tissue of the visual system. The PNS contains the sensory receptor cells for all of the other sensory systems—such as the touch receptors in the skin—as well as the nerves that carry information between the CNS and the rest of the body. Additionally, part of both the CNS and PNS contribute to the autonomic nervous system (also known as the visceral motor system). The autonomic nervous system controls smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and glands that govern involuntary actions, such as digestion. The vertebrate brain is primarily divided into the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem. The cerebrum is the largest, most anterior part of the brain that is divided into left and right hemispheres. Each hemisphere is further divided into four lobes: frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal. The outermost layer of the cerebrum is called

 Core: Nervous System

Anesthesia Induction and Maintenance

JoVE 10263

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN


The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals ("The Guide") states that pain assessment and alleviation are integral components of the veterinary care of laboratory animals.1 The definition of anesthesia is the loss …

 Lab Animal Research

Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging

JoVE 10393

Source: Frederick W. Damen and Craig J. Goergen, Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana


In this video, high field, small-bore magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with physiological monitoring is demonstrated to acquire gated cine loops of the murine cardiovascular system. This…

 Biomedical Engineering

Considerations for Rodent Surgery

JoVE 10285

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN


The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals1 dictates that rodent survival surgery be performed aseptically. Aseptic technique utilizes specific practices that minimize the contamination of the surgical site, including…

 Lab Animal Research

Quantitative Strain Mapping of an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

JoVE 10480

Source: Hannah L. Cebull1, Arvin H. Soepriatna1, John J. Boyle2 and Craig J. Goergen1


1Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana


2Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, St Louis, Missouri


 Biomedical Engineering

High-frequency Ultrasound Imaging of the Abdominal Aorta

JoVE 10397

Source: Amelia R. Adelsperger, Evan H. Phillips, and Craig J. Goergen, Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana


High-frequency ultrasound systems are used to acquire high resolution images. Here, the use of a state-of-the-art system will be demonstrated to image the morphology and …

 Biomedical Engineering

Combined SPECT and CT Imaging to Visualize Cardiac Functionality

JoVE 10396

Source: Alycia G. Berman, James A. Schaber, and Craig J. Goergen, Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana


Here we will demonstrate the fundamentals of single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging using mice. The technique involves injecting a…

 Biomedical Engineering

Photoacoustic Tomography to Image Blood and Lipids in the Infrarenal Aorta

JoVE 10395

Source: Gurneet S. Sangha and Craig J. Goergen, Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana


Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is an emerging biomedical imaging modality that utilizes light generated acoustic waves to obtain compositional information from tissue. PAT can be used to image …

 Biomedical Engineering

Misattribution of Arousal and Cognitive Dissonance

JoVE 10333

Source: Peter Mende-Siedlecki & Jay Van Bavel—New York University


A host of research in psychology suggests that feelings of psychological arousal may be relatively ambiguous, and under certain circumstances, can lead us to make inaccurate conclusions about our own mental states. Much of this work flows from seminal research…

 Social Psychology

Fear Conditioning

JoVE 5417

Fear Conditioning is a type of learning in which an association is established between a negative unpleasant event and a harmless stimulus. This leads to a fear of the harmless stimulus. This process is largely mediated by the amygdala, which is a brain region involved in emotions and stress reactions. Fear conditioning can be utilized in several ways to understand different aspects of…

 Behavioral Science

Mouse Genotyping

JoVE 5160

Even though the human genome was mapped over 10 years ago, scientists are still far from understanding the function of every human gene! One way to evaluate how a gene functions is to disrupt the sequence encoding it and then evaluate the impact of this change (the phenotype) on the animal’s biology. This approach is commonly used in the mouse (Mus musculus), since it shares a…

 Biology II

Genetic Engineering of Model Organisms

JoVE 5327

Transgenesis, or the use of genetic engineering to alter gene expression, is widely used in the field of developmental biology. Scientists use a number of approaches to alter the function of genes to understand their roles in developmental processes. This includes replacement of a gene with a nonfunctional copy, or adding a visualizable tag to a gene that allows the resultant fusion protein to …

 Developmental Biology

Ethics in Psychology Research

JoVE 10045

Source: Laboratories of Gary Lewandowski, Dave Strohmetz, and Natalie Ciarocco—Monmouth University



When a researcher finds an interesting topic to study such as aggression, the goal is often to study it in a way that is as true to life as possible. However, researchers must act in an ethical…

 Experimental Psychology

Modeling Social Stress

JoVE 5429

Stress negatively affects our quality of life. In particular, some individuals experience social stress when placed in a social environment that they are unfamiliar with or have difficulty adjusting to. Since it is hard to examine mechanisms of social stress in humans, modeling this condition in animals may help scientist in developing new therapies for treating this commonly encountered…

 Behavioral Science

An Introduction to the Laboratory Mouse: Mus musculus

JoVE 5129

Mice (Mus musculus) are an important research tool for modeling human disease progression and development in the lab. Despite differences in their size and appearance, mice share a distinct genetic similarity to humans, and their ability to reproduce and mature quickly make them efficient and economical candidate mammals for scientific study.


This video provides a brief…

 Biology II

Normothermic Ex Situ Heart Perfusion in Working Mode: Assessment of Cardiac Function and Metabolism

1Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta, 2Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta, 4Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Alberta, 5Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Alberta, 6Canadian National Transplant Research Program, 7Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta

JoVE 58430

 Medicine

A Pre-Clinical Porcine Model of Orthotopic Heart Transplantation

1Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Peter Munk Cardiac Center, Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network, 2Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, 3Perfusion and Anesthesia Services, Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network, 4Department of Anesthesia and Pain Management, Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network, 5Department of Anesthesia, University of Toronto, 6Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto

JoVE 59197

 Medicine

Light-sheet Fluorescence Microscopy to Capture 4-Dimensional Images of the Effects of Modulating Shear Stress on the Developing Zebrafish Heart

1Department of Bioengineering, The University of Texas at Arlington, 2Department of Medicine (Cardiology) and Bioengineering, UCLA, 3College of Health Science and Environmental Engineering, Shenzhen Technology University

JoVE 57763

 Bioengineering

Shunt Surgery, Right Heart Catheterization, and Vascular Morphometry in a Rat Model for Flow-induced Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

1Center for Congenital Heart Diseases, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Beatrix Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 2Research and Development Facility, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen

JoVE 55065

 Medicine
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