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Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
 Science Education: Essentials of Lab Animal Research

Compound Administration III

JoVE Science Education

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

There are many commonly used routes for compound administration in laboratory mice and rats. However, certain protocols may require the use of less commonly used routes, including intradermal, intranasal, and intracranial injections. Specialized training is essential for these procedures to be performed successfully. Justification for these routes may need to be provided to gain Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) approval.

 Science Education: Essentials of Lab Animal Research

Compound Administration I

JoVE Science Education

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

As many research protocols require that a substance be injected into an animal, the route of delivery and the amount of the substance must be accurately determined. There are several routes of administration available in the mouse and rat. Which route to use is determined by several factors of the substance to be injected: the pH of the solution, the volume required for the desired dosage, and the viscosity of the solution. Severe tissue damage can occur if a substance is administered incorrectly. This video looks at the various restraint methods and technical details for the most commonly used injection routes.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

In vivo Imaging of Transgenic Leishmania Parasites in a Live Host

1Interdisciplinary Immunology Program, University of Iowa, and the VA Medical Center, 2Department of Biochemistry, University of Iowa, and the VA Medical Center, 3Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, 4Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 5Division of Dermatology, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Hanley-Hardison Research Center, 6Interdisciplinary Immunology Program, Iowa City VA Medical Center, 7Departments of Internal Medicine, Microbiology and Epidemiology, University of Iowa


JoVE 1980

 Science Education: Essentials of Lab Animal Research

Compound Administration IV

JoVE Science Education

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

There are many commonly used routes for compound administration in laboratory mice and rats. Protocols may, however, require the use of the less commonly used routes: intracardiac, footpad, and retro-orbital injections. Specialized training is essential for these procedures to be performed successfully. Justification for these routes may need to be provided to gain Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) approval.

 JoVE Bioengineering

A Novel Technique for Generating and Observing Chemiluminescence in a Biological Setting

1Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 2KAUST Catalysis Center, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, 3Department of Chemistry, Hunter College, and PhD Program in Chemistry, Graduate Center of City University of New York, 4Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College


JoVE 54694

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 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the Dorsal Skin of Hamsters: a Useful Model for the Screening of Antileishmanial Drugs

1Program for the Study and Control of Tropical Diseases -PECET-School of Medicine, University of Antioquia, 2School of Agrarian Sciences, University of Antioquia


JoVE 3533

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 JoVE Developmental Biology

Technique to Target Microinjection to the Developing Xenopus Kidney

1Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Research Center, University of Texas McGovern Medical School, 2Program in Genes & Development, University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 3Program in Cell & Regulatory Biology, University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 4Department of Genetics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center


JoVE 53799

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 JoVE In-Press

Subpial Adeno-associated Virus 9 (AAV9) Vector Delivery in Adult Mice

1Neuroregeneration Laboratory, Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, 2Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics, Czech Academy of Sciences, 3Department of Neurosurgery, University of California, San Diego, 4Institute of Neurobiology, Slovak Academy of Sciences

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JoVE 55770

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 Science Education: Essentials of Nursing Skills

Preparing and Administering Intramuscular Injections

JoVE Science Education

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT

Intramuscular (IM) injections deposit medications deep into the muscle tissue. Since muscle fibers are well perfused, this route of administration provides quick uptake of the medication and allows for the administration of relatively large volumes. Skeletal muscles have fewer pain-sensing nerves than subcutaneous tissue, which allows for the less painful administration of irritating drugs (e.g., chlorpromazine, an anti-psychotic). IM injections are recommended for patients unable to take oral medications and for uncooperative patients. Some examples of medications that are commonly delivered by IM injections include antibiotics, hormones, and vaccinations. As in any other route of administration, the nurse must consider if the medication is appropriate, given the patient's medical conditions, allergies, and current clinical status. In addition, specifically for IM injections, it is important to assess the patient's muscle mass to determine the appropriate needle size. Also, if the patient has already received this injection, it is necessary to verify the injection site that was previously used and to ensure that the previous dose did not result in any adverse

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 Science Education: Essentials of Lab Animal Research

Rodent Handling and Restraint Techniques

JoVE Science Education

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN 

It has been demonstrated that even minimal handling of mice and rats is stressful to the animals. Handling for cage changing and other noninvasive procedures causes an increase in heart rate, blood pressure, and other physiological parameters, such as serum corticosterone levels. Fluctuations can continue for up to several hours. The methods of restraint required for injections and blood withdrawals also cause physiological changes that can potentially affect scientific data. Training in the proper handling of mice and rats is required to minimize the effects to the animals.1 Mice and rats can be restrained manually with restraint devices, or with chemical agents. Manual methods and the use of restraint devices are covered in this manuscript. All restraint methods include the process of lifting the animals from their home cage.

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 JoVE Developmental Biology

Expression of Fluorescent Proteins in Branchiostoma lanceolatum by mRNA Injection into Unfertilized Oocytes

1Département de Biologie du Développement et Cellules Souches, Institut Pasteur, 2Laboratoire de Biologie du Développement de Villefranche-sur-Mer (UMR7009 CNRS/UPMC Univ Paris 06), Sorbonne Universités, 3Equipe Epigenetic Control of Normal and Pathological Hematopoiesis, Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Marseille, 4Unité de Dynamique des Interactions Membranaires Normales et Pathologiques, CNRS UMR5235/DAA/cc107/Université Montpellier II, 5Plateforme BioEmergences IBiSA FBI, CNRS-NED, Institut de Neurobiologie Alfred Fessard


JoVE 52042

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 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Deciphering and Imaging Pathogenesis and Cording of Mycobacterium abscessus in Zebrafish Embryos

1Dynamique des Interactions Membranaires Normales et Pathologiques, CNRS, UMR 535, Université Montpellier, 2Centre d'études d'agents Pathogènes et Biotechnologies pour la Santé, CNRS, FRE 3689, Université Montpellier, 3Unité de Formation et de Recherche des Sciences de la Santé, EA3647-EPIM, Université Versailles St Quentin


JoVE 53130

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 JoVE Developmental Biology

Imaging Subcellular Structures in the Living Zebrafish Embryo

1Institute of Neuronal Cell Biology, Technische Universität München, 2Cell Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, 3Faculty of Biology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität-München, 4Adolf-Butenandt-Institute, Biochemistry, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität-München, 5German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, 6Laboratory of Brain Development and Repair, The Rockefeller University


JoVE 53456

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 JoVE Cancer Research

In Vivo Model for Testing Effect of Hypoxia on Tumor Metastasis

1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular & Cellular Biology, Georgetown University Medical Center, 2Department of Nursing, Georgetown University, School of Nursing and Health Studies, 3Department of Human Science, Georgetown University, School of Nursing and Health Studies, 4School of Medicine, Georgetown University Medical Center, 5Department of Pathology and Neuropathology, Medical University of Gdańsk, 6Department of Oncology, Georgetown University Medical Center, 7Department of Pathology, Georgetown University Medical Center


JoVE 54532

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 JoVE Medicine

Initiation of Metastatic Breast Carcinoma by Targeting of the Ductal Epithelium with Adenovirus-Cre: A Novel Transgenic Mouse Model of Breast Cancer

1Tumor Microenvironment and Metastasis Program, Wistar Institute, 2Department of Pathology and Lab Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Department of Genetics, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, 4Division of Endocrine and Oncologic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 5Rena Rowan Breast Center, Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, 6Center for Advanced Medicine, University of Pennsylvania


JoVE 51171

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 Science Education: Essentials of Nursing Skills

Preparing and Administering Subcutaneous Medications

JoVE Science Education

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT

Subcutaneous medication administration is a parenteral approach to administer small amounts of medication (less than 2 mL) into the layer of tissue just below the skin. Common medications administered via the subcutaneous route include anticoagulant medications, such as heparin or enoxaparin; epinephrine administered for allergic reactions; insulin; and some immunizations. Subcutaneous injection preparations are commonly provided in vials or ampules for withdrawal into a subcutaneous syringe. Subcutaneous needles have a shorter length and smaller diameter than syringes used for intramuscular injections, are typically less than 5/8th of an inch, and are 26 gauge or smaller. Medication absorption and onset is slower than for intravenous routes, with some absorption rates lasting 24 h or longer. This approach is selected for many medications that may be denatured or deactivated if given via the oral route, given the acidity of the gastrointestinal tract. Subcutaneous injection preparations are commonly provided in vials or ampules for withdrawal into a subcutaneous syringe. The nurse should determine the appropriate medication dose according to

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