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Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of Insulin in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent Hyperglycemia or Ketosis.

Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic Clamps in Conscious, Unrestrained Mice

1Diabetes and Obesity Research Center, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute at Lake Nona, 2Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 3Vanderbilt Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 4Department of Pediatrics and Cellular and Integrative Physiology, Indiana University School of Medicine

JoVE 3188

 Medicine

Anatomy of the Intestines

JoVE 10830

Although digestion of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids may begin in the stomach, it is completed in the intestine. The absorption of nutrients, water, and electrolytes from food and drink also occur in the intestine. The intestines can be divided into two structurally distinct organs—the small and large intestines.

The small intestine is an ~22 meter-long tube with an inner diameter of just 2.5 cm. Since most nutrients are absorbed here, the inner lining of the small intestine is highly convoluted and covered in finger-like extensions called villi, each containing hundreds of microvilli. The folds, villi, and microvilli of the small intestine amplify the surface area of absorption 60 to 120 times. The increased surface area provides ample opportunity for nutrients to be absorbed. The small intestine connects to the stomach by the pyloric sphincter, which closes off when chyme moves into the duodenum—the beginning of the small intestine. The middle and largest part of the small intestine is the jejunum. The ileum ends the small intestine, where it attaches to the large intestine by the ileocecal valve. The large intestine starts at the cecum. The appendix, a small lymphatic structure, dangles from the bottom of the cecum. Above the cecum, starts the ascending colon followed by the transverse colon. They absorb most of the remaining

 Core: Nutrition and Digestion

Chemiosmosis

JoVE 10743

Oxidative phosphorylation is a highly efficient process that generates large amounts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the basic unit of energy that drives many processes in living cells. Oxidative phosphorylation involves two processes—electron transport and chemiosmosis. During electron transport, electrons are shuttled between large complexes on the inner mitochondrial membrane and protons (H+) are pumped across the membrane into the intermembrane space, creating an electrochemical gradient. In the next step, protons flow back down their gradient into the mitochondrial matrix via ATP synthase, a protein complex embedded within the inner membrane. This process, called chemiosmosis, uses the energy of the proton gradient to drive the synthesis of ATP from adenosine diphosphate (ADP). The electron transport chain is a series of complexes that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via simultaneous reduction and oxidation reactions, otherwise known as redox reactions. At the end of the chain, electrons reduce molecular oxygen to produce water. The shuttling of electrons between complexes is coupled with proton transfer, whereby protons (H+ ions) travel from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space against their concentration gradient. Eventually, the high concentration of protons in the interm

 Core: Cellular Respiration

Isolation and Culture of Human Mature Adipocytes Using Membrane Mature Adipocyte Aggregate Cultures (MAAC)

1Bioscience Metabolism, Research and Early Development, Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolism (CVRM), BioPharmaceuticals R&D, AstraZeneca, 2The Lundberg Laboratory for Diabetes Research, University of Gothenburg, 3Wallenberg Centre for Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Gothenburg

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JoVE 60485

 JoVE In-Press

An In Vitro Batch-culture Model to Estimate the Effects of Interventional Regimens on Human Fecal Microbiota

1Department of Internal Medicine- Molecular Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, 3Department of Food Science and Technology, Isfahan University of Technology, 4Research Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, 5Department of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Wake Forest School of Medicine

JoVE 59524

 Immunology and Infection

An Advanced Murine Model for Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis in Association with Type 2 Diabetes

1Department of Endocrinology & Metabolism Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 2Berlin Institute of Health (BIH), 3Berlin-Brandenburg Center for Regenerative Therapies (BCRT), Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 4DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), 5Institute of Medical Immunology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 6Julius Wolff Institute (JWI) and Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin

JoVE 59470

 Immunology and Infection

Isolation of Primary Mouse Hepatocytes for Nascent Protein Synthesis Analysis by Non-radioactive L-azidohomoalanine Labeling Method

1Department of Pharmacology and Systems Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, 2Division of Endocrinology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3Division of Developmental Biology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 4Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati

JoVE 58323

 Medicine

Intraperitoneal Glucose Tolerance Test, Measurement of Lung Function, and Fixation of the Lung to Study the Impact of Obesity and Impaired Metabolism on Pulmonary Outcomes

1Translational Experimental Pediatrics, Experimental Pulmonology, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University of Cologne, 2Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University of Cologne, 3Division of Experimental Pediatrics and Metabolism, University Children's Hospital, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf

JoVE 56685

 Immunology and Infection

An Experimental Model of Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rabbit: Methodological Considerations, Development, and Assessment

1CIBERCV, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 2Department of Physiology, Universitat de València, 3INCLIVA, 4Department of Electronic Engineering, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, 5UCIM, Universitat de València, 6Department of Physiotherapy, Universitat de València

JoVE 57117

 Medicine

Experimental Protocol for Detecting Mitochondrial Function in Hepatocytes Exposed to Organochlorine Pesticides

1State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Institute of Toxicology, Nanjing Medical University, 2Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 3Center of Gallbladder Disease, Shanghai East Hospital, Institute of Gallstone Disease, Tongji University School of Medicine

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56800

 JoVE In-Press
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