1Department of Chemical Engineering, Rowan University, 2Department of Biological Sciences, Rowan University, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Drexel University
1Siegfried Weller Institute for Trauma Research at the BG Trauma Center, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, 2Department of Orthopaedics, BG Trauma-Center, 3Buck GmbH and Co.KG
1Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland
Source: Robert E. Sallis, MD. Kaiser Permanente, Fontana, California, USA
Examination of the neck can be a challenge because of the many bones, joints, and ligaments that make up the underlying cervical spine. The cervical spine is composed of seven vertebrae stacked in gentle C-shaped curve. The anterior part of each vertebra is made up of the thick bony body, which is linked to the body above and below by intervertebral discs. These discs help provide stability and shock absorption to the cervical spine. The posterior elements of the vertebra, which include the laminae, transverse, and spinous processes and the facet joints, form a protective canal for the cervical spinal cord and its nerve roots.
The cervical spine supports the head and protects the neural elements as they come from the brain and from the spinal cord. Therefore, injuries or disorders affecting the neck can also affect the underlying spinal cord and have potentially catastrophic consequences. The significant motion that occurs in the neck places the cervical spine at increased risk for injury and degenerative changes. The cervical spine is also a common source of radicular pain in the shoulder. For this reason, the neck should be evaluated as a routine part of every shoulder exam. …
Physical Examinations III
1Department of Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering "Giulio Natta", Politecnico di Milano
1Department of Neurosurgery, Clinical Institute of Medicine, Aalborg University Hospital, 2Center of Experimental Neuroscience (Cense), Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital
1School of Applied Science, Temasek Polytechnic, 2University of Applied Sciences Utrecht
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), UNIST-gil 50, Ulsan, Republic of Korea, 2Current Affiliation is Agency for Defense Development (ADD), Daejeon, Republic of Korea, 3Current Affiliation is KOGAS (Korea Gas Corporation) Research Institute, Daegu, Republic of Korea, 4Center for Soft and Living Matter, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), UNIST-gil 50, Ulsan, Republic of Korea
1Smart Vehicle Concepts Center, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University
1Department of Biology, Indiana University
1School of Ecosystem and Forest Sciences, Faculty of Science, The University of Melbourne, 2Victorian AgriBiosciences Centre, La Trobe University R&D Park, 3College of Biological Sciences, Department of Plant Biology, University of California, Davis, 4Department of Genetics, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), University of Pretoria
1Department of Biochemistry, Purdue University
1Feinberg Cardiovascular Research Institute, Northwestern University, 2Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco
1Department of Genetics and Biochemistry, Eukaryotic Pathogens Innovation Center (EPIC), Clemson University, 2Department of Biology, Western Carolina University
Immunology and Infection
1Department of Computational Intelligence and Systems Science, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Keio University, 4PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency
1Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, 2HHMI Janelia Research Campus, 3Berlin Institute of Medical Systems Biology of the Max Delbrück Center
Source: Laboratories of Margaret Workman and Kimberly Frye - Depaul University
Elemental Analysis is a method used to determine elemental composition of a material. In environmental samples such as soils, scientists are particularly interested in the amounts of two ecologically important elements, nitrogen and carbon. Elemental analysis by the flash combustion technique works by oxidizing the sample with a catalyst through combustion in a high-temperature chamber. The products of combustion are then reduced to N2 and CO2 and detected with a thermal conductivity detector.
Unlike other methods for total nitrogen determination (Kjeldahl method) and total carbon determination (Walkley-Black, Heanes or Leco methods), the flash combustion technique does not use toxic chemicals and is therefore much safer to use.
This video will demonstrate combustion-based elemental analysis using the Flash EA 1112 instrument from Thermo Fisher Scientific.…
1Feedstocks Division, Joint Bioenergy Institute, 2Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Source: Richard Glickman-Simon, MD, Assistant Professor, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, MA
The simplest ophthalmoscopes consist of an aperture to look through, a diopter indicator, and a disc for selecting lenses. The ophthalmoscope is primarily used to examine the fundus, or the inner wall of the posterior eye, which consists of the choroid, retina, fovea, macula, optic disc, and retinal vessels (Figure 1). The spherical eyeball collects and focuses light on the neurosensory cells of the retina. Light is refracted as it passes sequentially through the cornea, the lens, and the vitreous body.
The first landmark observed during the funduscopic exam is the optic disc, which is where the optic nerve and retinal vessels enter the back of the eye (Figure 2). The disc usually contains a central whitish physiologic cup where the vessels enter; it normally occupies less than half the diameter of the entire disc. Just lateral and slightly inferior is the fovea, a darkened circular area that demarcates the point of central vision. Around this is the macula. A blind spot approximately 15° temporal to the line of gaze results from a lack of photoreceptor cells at the optic disc.
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1Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology (MCDB), University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), 2Arizona College of Osteopathic Medicine (AZCOM), Midwestern University, 3MCDB, Broad Stem Cell Research Center, UCLA
1Regenerative Medicine Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
1Department of Neurobiology & Anatomy, University of Utah, 2Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, University of Utah
1Institute of Radiation Physics, Lausanne University Hospital, 2Federal Office of Public Health, Bern, Switzerland, 3Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich
1Centre for Neuroprosthesis, EPFL | STI | IMT/IBI | LSBI, 2Blond McIndoe Research Laboratories, Institute of Inflammation & Repair, The University of Manchester, 3University Hospital of South Manchester
1Warwick Electrochemistry and Interfaces Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick
1Photonics Group, Department of Physics, Imperial College London, 2Institute for Chemical Biology, Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, 3MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, 4Chemical Biology Section, Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, 5Retroscreen Virology Ltd, 6Pfizer Global Research and Development, Pfizer Limited, Sandwich, Kent, UK, 7Centre for Histopathology, Imperial College London
1Environmental Risk and Health, Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), 2Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, 3Transportation Research Institute, Hasselt University, 4Department of Public Health, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Leuven University
1School of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, 2School of Marine Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, 3Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Resources and Coastal Engineering, 4South China Sea Bio-Resource Exploitation and Utilization Collaborative Innovation Center, 5Institut für Geologie, Universität Hamburg, 6Institut für Geologie und Paläontologie, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, 7Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey
1Department of Craniofacial Development and Stem Cell Biology, and Department of Orthodontics, Dental Institute, Guy's Hospital, UK, King's College London, 2Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
1Neuroscience Division of the Biomedical & Health Sciences Institute, University of Georgia, 2Department of Cellular Biology, University of Georgia