Source: Richard Glickman-Simon, MD, Assistant Professor, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, MA
The simplest ophthalmoscopes consist of an aperture to look through, a diopter indicator, and a disc for selecting lenses. The ophthalmoscope is primarily used to examine the fundus, or the inner wall of the posterior eye, which consists of the choroid, retina, fovea, macula, optic disc, and retinal vessels (Figure 1). The spherical eyeball collects and focuses light on the neurosensory cells of the retina. Light is refracted as it passes sequentially through the cornea, the lens, and the vitreous body.
The first landmark observed during the funduscopic exam is the optic disc, which is where the optic nerve and retinal vessels enter the back of the eye (Figure 2). The disc usually contains a central whitish physiologic cup where the vessels enter; it normally occupies less than half the diameter of the entire disc. Just lateral and slightly inferior is the fovea, a darkened circular area that demarcates the point of central vision. Around this is the macula. A blind spot approximately 15° temporal to the line of gaze results from a lack of photoreceptor cells at the optic disc.
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1Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, 2HHMI Janelia Research Campus, 3Berlin Institute of Medical Systems Biology of the Max Delbrück Center
Source: Laboratories of Margaret Workman and Kimberly Frye - Depaul University
Elemental Analysis is a method used to determine elemental composition of a material. In environmental samples such as soils, scientists are particularly interested in the amounts of two ecologically important elements, nitrogen and carbon. Elemental analysis by the flash combustion technique works by oxidizing the sample with a catalyst through combustion in a high-temperature chamber. The products of combustion are then reduced to N2 and CO2 and detected with a thermal conductivity detector.
Unlike other methods for total nitrogen determination (Kjeldahl method) and total carbon determination (Walkley-Black, Heanes or Leco methods), the flash combustion technique does not use toxic chemicals and is therefore much safer to use.
This video will demonstrate combustion-based elemental analysis using the Flash EA 1112 instrument from Thermo Fisher Scientific.…
1Feinberg Cardiovascular Research Institute, Northwestern University, 2Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco
1Feedstocks Division, Joint Bioenergy Institute, 2Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
1Department of Genetics and Biochemistry, Eukaryotic Pathogens Innovation Center (EPIC), Clemson University, 2Department of Biology, Western Carolina University
Immunology and Infection
1Department of Computational Intelligence and Systems Science, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Keio University, 4PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency
1Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology (MCDB), University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), 2Arizona College of Osteopathic Medicine (AZCOM), Midwestern University, 3MCDB, Broad Stem Cell Research Center, UCLA
1Regenerative Medicine Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
1Department of Neurobiology & Anatomy, University of Utah, 2Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, University of Utah
1Institute of Radiation Physics, Lausanne University Hospital, 2Federal Office of Public Health, Bern, Switzerland, 3Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich
1Photonics Group, Department of Physics, Imperial College London, 2Institute for Chemical Biology, Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, 3MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, 4Chemical Biology Section, Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, 5Retroscreen Virology Ltd, 6Pfizer Global Research and Development, Pfizer Limited, Sandwich, Kent, UK, 7Centre for Histopathology, Imperial College London
1Department of Reconstructive Sciences, University of Connecticut Health Center, 2Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Connecticut, 3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Connecticut Health Center, 4Department of Orthopaedics, University of Rochester
1Centre for Neuroprosthesis, EPFL | STI | IMT/IBI | LSBI, 2Blond McIndoe Research Laboratories, Institute of Inflammation & Repair, The University of Manchester, 3University Hospital of South Manchester
1Environmental Risk and Health, Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), 2Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, 3Transportation Research Institute, Hasselt University, 4Department of Public Health, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Leuven University
1Warwick Electrochemistry and Interfaces Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick
Source: Laboratory of Jonathan Flombaum—Johns Hopkins University
Human color vision is impressive. People with normal color vision can tell apart millions of individual hues. Most amazingly, this ability is achieved with fairly simple hardware.
Part of the power of human color vision comes from a clever bit of engineering in the human brain. There, color perception relies on what is known as an 'opponent system.' This means that the presence of one kind of stimulus is treated as evidence for the absence of another, and vice versa; absence of one kind of stimulus is taken as evidence for the presence of the other. In particular, in the human brain there are cells that fire both when they receive signals to suggest that blue light is present, or when they do not receive signals suggesting yellow light. Similarly, there are cells that fire in the presence of yellow or the absence of blue. Blue and yellow are thus treated as opponent values in one dimension, and can be thought of as negative versus positive values on one axis of a Cartesian plane. If a stimulus is characterized as having a negative value on that axis, it can't also have a positive value. So, if it is characterized as yellow, it can't also be characterized as blue. Similarly, green and red (or really, magenta), o…
Sensation and Perception
1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Maryland-Baltimore School of Medicine, 2Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Maryland-Baltimore School of Medicine