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Leg Bones: The bones of the free part of the lower extremity in humans and of any of the four extremities in animals. It includes the Femur; Patella; Tibia; and Fibula.

Proximal Cadaveric Femur Preparation for Fracture Strength Testing and Quantitative CT-based Finite Element Analysis

1Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, 2Division of Engineering, Mayo Clinic, 3Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, 4Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

JoVE 54925


 Medicine

In Vivo Model for Testing Effect of Hypoxia on Tumor Metastasis

1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular & Cellular Biology, Georgetown University Medical Center, 2Department of Nursing, Georgetown University, School of Nursing and Health Studies, 3Department of Human Science, Georgetown University, School of Nursing and Health Studies, 4School of Medicine, Georgetown University Medical Center, 5Department of Pathology and Neuropathology, Medical University of Gdańsk, 6Department of Oncology, Georgetown University Medical Center, 7Department of Pathology, Georgetown University Medical Center

JoVE 54532


 Cancer Research

A Rat Tibial Growth Plate Injury Model to Characterize Repair Mechanisms and Evaluate Growth Plate Regeneration Strategies

1Department of Bioengineering, Department of Orthopedics, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, 2Department of Orthopedics, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, 3Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 4Department of Orthopedics, Gates Center for Regenerative Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus

JoVE 55571


 Medicine

Ankle Exam

JoVE 10191

Source: Robert E. Sallis, MD. Kaiser Permanente, Fontana, California, USA

The ankle and foot provide the foundation for the body and the stability needed for upright posture and ambulation. Because of its weight-bearing function, the ankle joint is a common site of injury among athletes and in the general population. Ankle injuries occur as a result of both acute trauma and repetitive overuse (such as running). The ankle is a fairly simple joint, consisting of the articulation between the distal tibia and talus of the foot, along with the fibula on the lateral side. The ankle is supported by numerous ligaments, most notably the deltoid ligament on the medial side, and laterally by three lateral ligaments: the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL), the calcaneofibular ligament (CFL), and the posterior talofibular ligament (PTFL). Physical examination of the ankle and the patient history (including the mechanism of the injury and the location of pain) provide diagnostic information that helps the physician to pinpoint specific structures involved in an injury, and are essential for determining the severity of the injury and the subsequent diagnostic steps. When examining the ankle, it is important to closely compare the injured ankle to the uninvolved side. Essential components of the ankle exam i


 Physical Examinations III

Method and Instrumented Fixture for Femoral Fracture Testing in a Sideways Fall-on-the-Hip Position

1Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, 2Division of Engineering, Mayo Clinic, 3Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, 4Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

JoVE 54928


 Bioengineering

Lower Back Exam

JoVE 10177

Source: Robert E. Sallis, MD. Kaiser Permanente, Fontana, California, USA

The back is the most common source of pain in the body. Examination of the back can be a challenge due to its numerous structures, including the bones, discs, ligaments, nerves, and muscles-all of which can generate pain. Sometimes, the location of the pain can be suggestive of etiology. The essential components of the lower back exam include inspection and palpation for signs of deformity and inflammation, evaluation of the range of motion (ROM) of the back, testing the strength of the muscles innervated by the nerves exiting in the lumbar-sacral spine, neurological evaluation, and special tests (including the Stork test and Patrick's test).


 Physical Examinations III

Models of Bone Metastasis

1Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University, 2Vanderbilt Center for Bone Biology, Vanderbilt University, 3Department of Veterans Affairs, Tennessee Valley Healthcare System (VISN 9), 4Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University, 5Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University

JoVE 4260


 Medicine

Clinical-oriented Three-dimensional Gait Analysis Method for Evaluating Gait Disorder

1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, School of Medicine, Fujita Health University, 2Faculty of Rehabilitation, School of Health Science, Fujita Health University, 3Department of Rehabilitation, Fujita Health University Hospital, 4Department of Advanced Rehabilitation Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 57063


 JoVE In-Press

Scaled Anatomical Model Creation of Biomedical Tomographic Imaging Data and Associated Labels for Subsequent Sub-surface Laser Engraving (SSLE) of Glass Crystals

1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 2Models Plus Incorporated, 3Saint Joseph Regional Medical Center, 4Harper Cancer Research Institute, University of Notre Dame, 5Notre Dame Integrated Imaging Facility, University of Notre Dame

JoVE 55340


 Bioengineering

Generation of Organ-conditioned Media and Applications for Studying Organ-specific Influences on Breast Cancer Metastatic Behavior

1London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, 2Department of Anatomy & Cell Biology, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, Western University, 3Department of Biochemistry, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, Western University, 4Department of Oncology, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, Western University, 5Lawson Health Research Institute

JoVE 54037


 Medicine

Treatment of Osteochondral Defects in the Rabbit's Knee Joint by Implantation of Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Fibrin Clots

1Department of Orthopaedic Sports Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universität München, 2Department of Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universität München, 3Institute of Experimental Oncology and Therapy Research, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universität München, 4Department of Radiology, Uniklinik Köln

JoVE 4423


 Medicine

Intraosseous Needle Placement

JoVE 10312

Source: Julianna Jung, MD, FACEP, Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Maryland, USA

For unstable patients requiring urgent administration of medications, fluids, or blood products, establishing vascular access quickly is essential. However, there are many factors that can complicate placement of a peripheral intravenous cannula (PIV), and it is extremely common for PIV attempts to fail. PIV placement may be technically challenging in small children, injection drug users, obese people, people with chronic illnesses necessitating frequent vascular access, and in those with burns and other skin conditions. Furthermore, for patients in shock, blood is shunted away from the periphery in order to compensate for impaired perfusion of vital organs, making peripheral vessels difficult to find and


 Emergency Medicine and Critical Care

Isolation and Intravenous Injection of Murine Bone Marrow Derived Monocytes

1Department for Cardiology, Angiology and Pneumology, Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, 2Herzzentrum Dresden, Universitätsklinikum an der Technischen Universität Dresden, Technische Universität Dresden, 3Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge

JoVE 52347


 Immunology and Infection

Metabolic Support of Excised, Living Brain Tissues During Magnetic Resonance Microscopy Acquisition

1Department of Neuroscience, University of Florida, 2McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, 4Center for Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus University, 5Department of Radiology, University of Florida, 6National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University

JoVE 56282


 Bioengineering

Distinctive Capillary Action by Micro-channels in Bone-like Templates can Enhance Recruitment of Cells for Restoration of Large Bony Defect

1Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Columbia University, 2Endodontics, Columbia University, 3Mechanical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, South Korea, 4Orthodontics, The Ohio State University, 5Pathology, Weill Cornell Medical College

JoVE 52947


 Bioengineering

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