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Lewy Bodies: Intracytoplasmic, eosinophilic, round to elongated inclusions found in vacuoles of injured or fragmented neurons. The presence of Lewy bodies is the histological marker of the degenerative changes in Lewy body disease and Parkinson disease but they may be seen in other neurological conditions. They are typically found in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but they are also seen in the basal forebrain, hypothalamic nuclei, and neocortex.

Neural Regulation

JoVE 10835

Digestion begins with a cephalic phase that prepares the digestive system to receive food. When our brain processes visual or olfactory information about food, it triggers impulses in the cranial nerves innervating the salivary glands and stomach to prepare for food.

The cephalic phase is a conditioned or learned response to familiar foods. Our appetite or desire for a particular food modifies the preparatory responses directed by the brain. Individuals may produce more saliva and stomach rumblings in anticipation of apple pie than of broccoli. Appetite and desire are products of the hypothalamus and amygdala—brain areas associated with visceral processes and emotion. After the cephalic phase, digestion is governed by the enteric nervous system (ENS) as an unconditioned reflex. Individuals do not have to learn how to digest food; it happens regardless of whether it is apple pie or broccoli. The ENS is unique in that it functions (mostly) independent of the brain. About 90% of the communication are messages sent from the ENS to the brain rather than the other way around. These messages give the brain information about satiety, nausea, or bloating. The ENS, as part of the peripheral nervous system, is also unique in that it contains both motor and sensory neurons. For example, the ENS directs smooth muscle movements that churn and propel food al

 Core: Nutrition and Digestion

Generation of Alpha-Synuclein Preformed Fibrils from Monomers and Use In Vivo

1Department of Translational Science and Molecular Medicine, Michigan State University, 2The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research, 3Neuroscience Program, Michigan State University, 4Center for Neurodegenerative Disease Research, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, 5Center for Neurodegeneration and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 6Mercy Health Hauenstein Neuroscience Medical Center

JoVE 59758

 Neuroscience

Lentiviral Vector Platform for the Efficient Delivery of Epigenome-editing Tools into Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Disease Models

1Department of Neurology, Duke University Medical Center, 2Center for Genomic and Computational Biology, Duke University Medical Center, 3Viral Vector Core, Duke University Medical Center, 4Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Duke University Medical Center

JoVE 59241

 Genetics

Using Retinal Imaging to Study Dementia

1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2Department of Medicine & Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 3Therese Pei Fong Chow Research Centre for Prevention of Dementia, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 4Gerald Choa Neuroscience Centre, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 5Memory Aging and Cognition Centre, National University Health System, 6Department of Pharmacology, National University of Singapore, 7Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, 8Duke-NUS Medical School, National University of Singapore

JoVE 56137

 Medicine

Characterizing Histone Post-translational Modification Alterations in Yeast Neurodegenerative Proteinopathy Models

1Chemistry Department, Brooklyn College, 2Ph.D. Program in Biochemistry, Graduate Center of the City University of New York, 3Ph.D. Program in Chemistry, Graduate Center of the City University of New York, 4Ph.D. Programs in Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Biology, Graduate Center of the City University of New York

JoVE 59104

 Genetics

Development of an Alpha-synuclein Based Rat Model for Parkinson's Disease via Stereotactic Injection of a Recombinant Adeno-associated Viral Vector

1Laboratory for Neurobiology and Gene Therapy, Department of Neurosciences, KU Leuven, 2Division of Nuclear Medicine, Leuven University Hospital - KU Leuven, 3Laboratory for Molecular Virology and Gene Therapy, Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, KU Leuven, 4Leuven Viral Vector Core, KU Leuven

JoVE 53670

 Medicine

Detection of Disease-associated α-synuclein by Enhanced ELISA in the Brain of Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Human A53T Mutated α-synuclein

1Neurodegenerative Diseases Unit, ANSES - French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety, 2Indicia Production, 3AJ Roboscreen GmbH, 4Epidemiology Unit, ANSES - French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety, 5Experimental Facilities, ANSES - French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety

JoVE 52752

 Medicine

Consensus Brain-derived Protein, Extraction Protocol for the Study of Human and Murine Brain Proteome Using Both 2D-DIGE and Mini 2DE Immunoblotting

1Team Alzheimer & Tauopathies, Jean-Pierre Aubert Research Centre, Inserm UMR 837, 2EA 4308-Department of Reproductive Biology-Spermiology-CECOS, CHRU-Lille, 3EA2686-Laboratorie d'Immunologie, Faculté de Médecine - Pôle Recherche, 4Department of Neurology, CHRU-Lille

JoVE 51339

 Neuroscience

Abbiategrasso Brain Bank Protocol for Collecting, Processing and Characterizing Aging Brains

1Department of Neurology and Neuropathology, Golgi-Cenci Foundation, 2Laboratory of Neurobiology and Neurogenetic, Golgi-Cenci Foundation, 3Department of Neuropsychology and Social Sciences, Golgi-Cenci Foundation, 4Department of Rehabilitation, ASP Golgi-Redaelli Geriatric Hospital, 5Genomic and Post-Genomic Center, IRCCS Mondino Foundation, 6Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia, 7Department of Pathology, ASP Golgi-Redaelli Geriatric Hospital, 8Department of Neurological Science, IRCCS Mondino Foundation, University of Pavia

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JoVE 60296

 JoVE In-Press
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