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Ligand-Gated Ion Channels: A subclass of ion channels that open or close in response to the binding of specific Ligands.
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Patch Clamp Electrophysiology

JoVE 5202

Neuron cell membranes are populated with ion channels that control the movement of charge into and out of the cell, thereby regulating neuron firing. One extremely useful technique for investigating the biophysical properties of these channels is called patch clamp recording. In this method, neuroscientists place a polished glass micropipette against a cell and apply suction to form a high resistance seal. This process isolates a small “patch” of membrane that contains one or more ion channels. Using an electrode within the micropipette, researchers can “clamp” or control the electrical properties of the membrane, which is important for analysis of channel activity. The electrode also allows for changes in the voltage across the membrane, or the flow of ions through the membrane, to be recorded. This video begins with an overview of the principles behind patch clamp electrophysiology, an introduction to the necessary equipment, and descriptions of the various patch configurations, including whole cell, cell-attached, perforated, inside-out, and outside-out patches. Next, the key steps of a typical whole-cell patch clamp experiment are outlined, in which a current-voltage (IV) curve is generated. Finally, applications of patch clamp recording are provided to demonstrate how the biophysical propert


 Neuroscience

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Creating Dynamic Images of Short-lived Dopamine Fluctuations with lp-ntPET: Dopamine Movies of Cigarette Smoking

1Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University, 2Psychiatry, Yale University, 3Yale PET Center, Yale University, 4Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, 5Nuclear Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 6Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine

JoVE 50358


 Behavior

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Implementation of a Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) System on a Ti:Sapphire and OPO Laser Based Standard Laser Scanning Microscope

1INSERM U1051, Institut des Neurosciences de Montpellier (INM), Université de Montpellier, 2Université de Nîmes, 3CNRS, IES, UMR 5214, 4Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, École Centrale Marseille, Institut Fresnel, UMR 7249, 5Montpellier RIO Imaging (MRI)

JoVE 54262


 Biology

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Vasodilation of Isolated Vessels and the Isolation of the Extracellular Matrix of Tight-skin Mice

1Department of Anesthesiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 2Clement J. Zablocki Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 3Department of Surgery, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Children's Research Institute, 4Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, 5Deptarment of Anesthesiology, Clement J Zblocki Veteran Affairs Medical Center, 6Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Medical College of Wisconsin

JoVE 55036


 Immunology and Infection

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Mössbauer Spectroscopy

JoVE 10448

Source: Joshua Wofford, Tamara M. Powers, Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University 

Mössbauer spectroscopy is a bulk characterization technique that examines the nuclear excitation of an atom by gamma rays in the solid state. The resulting Mössbauer spectrum provides information about the oxidation state, spin state, and electronic environment around the target atom, which, in combination, gives evidence about the electronic structure and ligand arrangement (geometry) of the molecule. In this video, we will learn about the basic principles of Mössbauer spectroscopy and collect a zero field 57Fe Mössbauer spectrum of ferrocene.


 Inorganic Chemistry

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A RANKL-based osteoclast culture assay of mouse bone marrow to investigate the role of mTORC1 in osteoclast formation

1Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology & Shanghai Research Institute of Stomatology, National Clinical Research center of Stomatology, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 2State Key Laboratory of Cell Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial-Head and Neck Oncology, Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine

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JoVE 56468


 JoVE In-Press

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Creating a Structurally Realistic Finite Element Geometric Model of a Cardiomyocyte to Study the Role of Cellular Architecture in Cardiomyocyte Systems Biology

1Cell Structure and Mechanobiology Group, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Melbourne, 2Systems Biology Laboratory, Melbourne School of Engineering, University of Melbourne, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Melbourne, 4Department of Engineering Science, University of Auckland, 5Advanced Microscopy Facility, Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, University of Melbourne, 6School of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, 7School of Mathematics and Statistics, Faculty of Science, University of Melbourne, 8ARC Centre of Excellence in Convergent Bio-Nano Science and Technology, University of Melbourne, 9Living Systems Institute, University of Exeter

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JoVE 56817


 JoVE In-Press

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Millifluidics for Chemical Synthesis and Time-resolved Mechanistic Studies

1Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices (CAMD), Louisiana State University, 2Center for Atomic-Level Catalyst Design, Cain Department of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana State University, 3Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Louisiana State University, 4Argonne National Laboratory

JoVE 50711


 Bioengineering

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Using a Microfluidics Device for Mechanical Stimulation and High Resolution Imaging of C. elegans

1Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, 3Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, 4Group of Neurophotonics and Mechanical Systems Biology, The Institute of Photonic Sciences (ICFO)

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JoVE 56530


 JoVE In-Press

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Measuring Intracellular Ca2+ Changes in Human Sperm using Four Techniques: Conventional Fluorometry, Stopped Flow Fluorometry, Flow Cytometry and Single Cell Imaging

1Departamento de Genética del Desarrollo y Fisiología Molecular, Instituto de Biotecnología-Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 2Math and Sciences Department, Edison State College

JoVE 50344


 Biology

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Real-time Iontophoresis with Tetramethylammonium to Quantify Volume Fraction and Tortuosity of Brain Extracellular Space

1Department of Medicine, University of Virginia, 2Department of Cell Biology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, 3Neural and Behavioral Science Graduate Program, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, 4Division of Neonatology, University of Virginia, 5Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, New York University School of Medicine,

JoVE 55755


 Neuroscience

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Prediction and Validation of Gene Regulatory Elements Activated During Retinoic Acid Induced Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation

1Sanford-Burnham-Prebys Medical Discovery Institute at Lake Nona, 2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Research Center for Molecular Medicine, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, 3MTA-DE “Lendulet” Immunogenomics Research Group, University of Debrecen

JoVE 53978


 Developmental Biology

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High-throughput Quantitative Real-time RT-PCR Assay for Determining Expression Profiles of Types I and III Interferon Subtypes

1Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, US Food and Drug Administration, 2Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, US Food and Drug Administration

JoVE 52650


 Immunology and Infection

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Long-term Live Imaging Device for Improved Experimental Manipulation of Zebrafish Larvae

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2Morgridge Institute for Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 3Laboratory for Optical and Computational Instrumentation, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 4Cellular and Molecular Pathology Graduate Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 5Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 6Department of Pediatrics, University of Wisconsin-Madison

JoVE 56340


 Bioengineering

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