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Lymph Node Exam

JoVE 10061

Source: Richard Glickman-Simon, MD, Assistant Professor, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, MA


The lymphatic system has two main functions: to return extracellular fluid back to the venous circulation and to expose antigenic substances to the immune system. As the collected fluid passes …

 Physical Examinations II

Bone Structure

JoVE 10864

Within the skeletal system, the structure of a bone, or osseous tissue, can be exemplified in a long bone, like the femur, where there are two types of osseous tissue: cortical and cancellous.

Covering the cortical, or compact bone, is a membrane called the periosteum, which contains connective tissue, capillaries, and nerves. The outer, solid layer—found along the diaphysis, the shaft—forms a dense protective shell around the medullary canal—the cavity that stores yellow bone marrow, composed primarily of fat cells. This space is also covered in a thin lining—the endosteum in which bone growth, remodeling, and repair occur. Within the dense layer of cortical bone are osteons—structural units, arranged in concentric rings called lamellae, that contain osteoblasts—cells critical for bone formation and growth. These cells eventually mature into osteocytes in the hollow space, the lacuna. Through the center of each osteon runs the Haversian canal, which contains more blood and lymphatic vessels, as well as nerve fibers. Towards the rounded ends of the long bone, the epiphyses is the second type of osseous tissue, known as the cancellous, or spongy, bone. This inner layer is composed of a honeycomb-like network of trabeculae—grouped arrangements that form along the lines of stress points to maximize strengt

 Core: Musculoskeletal System

Physiology of the Circulatory System- Concept

JoVE 10625

Homeostasis

Conditions in the external environment of an organism can change rapidly and drastically. To survive, organisms must maintain a fairly constant internal environment, which involves continuous regulation of temperature, pH, and other factors. This balanced state is known as homeostasis, which describes the processes by which organisms maintain their optimal internal…

 Lab Bio

Anatomy of the Intestines

JoVE 10830

Although digestion of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids may begin in the stomach, it is completed in the intestine. The absorption of nutrients, water, and electrolytes from food and drink also occur in the intestine. The intestines can be divided into two structurally distinct organs—the small and large intestines.

The small intestine is an ~22 meter-long tube with an inner diameter of just 2.5 cm. Since most nutrients are absorbed here, the inner lining of the small intestine is highly convoluted and covered in finger-like extensions called villi, each containing hundreds of microvilli. The folds, villi, and microvilli of the small intestine amplify the surface area of absorption 60 to 120 times. The increased surface area provides ample opportunity for nutrients to be absorbed. The small intestine connects to the stomach by the pyloric sphincter, which closes off when chyme moves into the duodenum—the beginning of the small intestine. The middle and largest part of the small intestine is the jejunum. The ileum ends the small intestine, where it attaches to the large intestine by the ileocecal valve. The large intestine starts at the cecum. The appendix, a small lymphatic structure, dangles from the bottom of the cecum. Above the cecum, starts the ascending colon followed by the transverse colon. They absorb most of the remaining

 Core: Nutrition and Digestion

Cell-mediated Immune Responses

JoVE 10896

The cell-mediated immune system is the host’s primary response against invasive bacteria and viruses that cause intracellular infections. It is also essential for fighting against and destroying cancer cells. Furthermore, the cell-mediated immune system plays a role in the rejection of organ transplants or graft tissue.

Phagocytic cells of the innate immune system, such as macrophages or dendritic cells, are the first to recognize a foreign particle. These cells engulf the foreign particle and digest it. Small molecules of the foreign particle, called antigens, remain intact and are presented at the surface of the phagocytic cell. The presentation is facilitated by proteins of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which binds the antigen and protrude from the cell. The phagocytic cell is therefore also called an antigen presenting cell (APC). The MHC-antigen complex activates cells of the adaptive immune system, which eventually fight the source of the foreign particle. T cells are a type of lymphocyte that are named after their location of maturation—the thymus. In the thymus, precursor T cells differentiate into two main types, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. These cell types are named after the surface receptor that determines the cell’s function. All T cells carry T-cell receptors, but the coreceptor CD4

 Core: Immune System

Semi-automatic PD-L1 Characterization and Enumeration of Circulating Tumor Cells from Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients by Immunofluorescence

1Laboratoire de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire, Groupe Hospitalier Sud, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 2Circulating Cancer (CIRCAN) Program, Hospices Civils de Lyon Cancer Institute, 3University of Lyon, Claude Bernard University, Cancer Research Center of Lyon, 4Biolidics Limited, 5Institut de Pathologie Multisites des HCL-Site Sud, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 6Acute Respiratory Disease and Thoracic Oncology Department, Lyon Sud Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon Cancer Institute, 7EMR-3738 Therapeutic Targeting in Oncology, Lyon Sud Medical Faculty, Lyon 1 University

JoVE 59873

 Cancer Research

An Orthotopic Endometrial Cancer Model with Retroperitoneal Lymphadenopathy Made From In Vivo Propagated and Cultured VX2 Cells

1Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Toronto, 3Guided Therapeutics Laboratory, TECHNA Institute, University Health Network, 4Department of Pathology, Princess Margaret Cancer Center, University Health Network, 5Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 6Princess Margaret Cancer Center, University Health Network, 7Techna Institute, University Health Network, 8Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, 9Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Toronto, 10Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University of Toronto /Princess Margaret Cancer Center, University Health Network, 11Princess Margaret Cancer Center, University Health Network

JoVE 59340

 Cancer Research

A Visual Description of the Dissection of the Cerebral Surface Vasculature and Associated Meninges and the Choroid Plexus from Rat Brain

1Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, 2Division of Personalized Nutrition and Medicine, National Center for Toxicological Research, 3Office of Planning, Finance, and Information Technology, National Center for Toxicological Research

JoVE 4285

 Neuroscience

Imaging Cell Interaction in Tracheal Mucosa During Influenza Virus Infection Using Two-photon Intravital Microscopy

1Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Università della Svizzera italiana (USI), 2Graduate School of Cellular and Molecular Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Bern, 3Institute of Computational Science, Università della Svizzera italiana (USI)

JoVE 58355

 Immunology and Infection

The C. elegans Excretory Canal as a Model for Intracellular Lumen Morphogenesis and In Vivo Polarized Membrane Biogenesis in a Single Cell: labeling by GFP-fusions, RNAi Interaction Screen and Imaging

1Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, Developmental Biology and Genetics Core, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, Harvard Medical School, 2College of Life Sciences, Jilin University, 3Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau

JoVE 56101

 Developmental Biology

Whole-cell Patch-clamp Recordings of Isolated Primary Epithelial Cells from the Epididymis

1School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, 2Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 4Shanghai Institute for Advanced Immunochemical Studies, ShanghaiTech University

JoVE 55700

 Developmental Biology

An Enzyme- and Serum-free Neural Stem Cell Culture Model for EMT Investigation Suited for Drug Discovery

1Dept. of Biomedicine, Pharmacenter, University of Basel, 2Molecular Signalling and Gene Therapy, Narayana Nethralaya Foundation, Narayana Health City, 3Brain Ischemia and Regeneration, Department of Biomedicine, University Hospital Basel, 4Department of Neurosurgery, Klinikum Idar-Oberstein, 5Department of Neurosurgery and Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University, 6Department of Neurology, Laboratory of Molecular Neuro Oncology, University Hospital of Zurich

JoVE 54018

 Developmental Biology

Highly Resolved Intravital Striped-illumination Microscopy of Germinal Centers

1Biophysical Analytics, German Rheumatism Research Center, Leibniz Institute, 2Microscopy Core Facility, Max-Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, 3Immunodynamics, German Rheumatism Research Center, Leibniz Institute, 4LaVision Biotec GmbH, 5Immunodynamics and Intravital Imaging, Charité - University of Medicine

JoVE 51135

 Immunology and Infection

Laparoscopic Radical Left Pancreatectomy for Pancreatic Cancer: Surgical Strategy and Technique Video

1Department of Surgery, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, 2Department of Surgery, Southampton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, 3General and Pancreatic Surgery Department, Pancreas Institute, University and Hospital Trust of Verona

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 60332

 JoVE In-Press

Integrating Augmented Reality Tools in Breast Cancer Related Lymphedema Prognostication and Diagnosis

1Department of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Piedmont "A. Avogadro", 2Division of Pathology, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 3Division of Breast Surgery, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 4Division of Medical Oncology, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 5Division of Pathology, Maggiore della Carità Hospital, 6Department of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Piedmont "A. Avogadro", 7Department of Biomedical, Surgical, and Dental Sciences, University of Milan

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 60093

 JoVE In-Press

Isolation of Lamina Propria Mononuclear Cells from Murine Colon Using Collagenase E

1Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology / Oncology and Bone Marrow Transplantation, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 2Batchelor Children's Research Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 3Department of Microbiology & Immunology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 4Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 5Holtz Children's Hospital, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine

JoVE 59821

 Immunology and Infection
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