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Macular Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the Retina usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the Macula lutea) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

JoVE 10812

Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that divide and produce different types of cells. Ordinarily, cells that have differentiated into a specific cell type are post-mitotic—that is, they no longer divide. However, scientists have found a way to reprogram these mature cells so that they “de-differentiate” and return to an unspecialized, proliferative state. These cells are also pluripotent like embryonic stem cells—able to produce all cell types—and are therefore called induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). iPSCs are potentially valuable in medicine, because a patient who needs a particular cell type—for instance, someone with a damaged retina due to macular degeneration—could receive a transplant of the required cells, generated from another cell type in their own body. This is called autologous transplantation, and it reduces the risk of transplant rejection that can occur when tissues are transplanted between individuals. To create iPSCs, mature cells such as skin fibroblasts or blood cells from a person are grown in culture. Then, genes for multiple transcription factors are delivered into the cells using a viral vector, and the transcription factor proteins are expressed using the cell’s machinery. The transcription factors then turn on many other genes that are expressed by embryonic stem cells, re

 Core: Biotechnology

Crowding

JoVE 10280

Source: Laboratory of Jonathan Flombaum—Johns Hopkins University


Human vision depends on light-sensitive neurons that are arranged in the back of the eye on a tissue called the retina. The neurons, called the rods and cones because of their shapes, are not uniformly distributed on the retina. Instead, there is a region in the center…

 Sensation and Perception

Ophthalmoscopic Examination

JoVE 10146

Source: Richard Glickman-Simon, MD, Assistant Professor, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, MA


The simplest ophthalmoscopes consist of an aperture to look through, a diopter indicator, and a disc for selecting lenses. The ophthalmoscope is primarily used to examine the fundus, or the…

 Physical Examinations II

Finding Your Blind Spot and Perceptual Filling-in

JoVE 10195

Source: Laboratory of Jonathan Flombaum—Johns Hopkins University


In the back of everyone's eye is a small piece of neural tissue called the retina. The retina has photosensitive cells that respond to stimulation by light. The responses of these cells are sent into the brain through the optic nerve, a bundle of neural fibers. In each…

 Sensation and Perception

Using Retinal Imaging to Study Dementia

1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2Department of Medicine & Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 3Therese Pei Fong Chow Research Centre for Prevention of Dementia, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 4Gerald Choa Neuroscience Centre, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 5Memory Aging and Cognition Centre, National University Health System, 6Department of Pharmacology, National University of Singapore, 7Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, 8Duke-NUS Medical School, National University of Singapore

JoVE 56137

 Medicine

Use of Rabbit Eyes in Pharmacokinetic Studies of Intraocular Drugs

1Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, 2Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Hanyang University Hospital, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, 5Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Seoul National University Hospital, 6Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital

JoVE 53878

 Medicine

Encapsulated Cell Technology for the Delivery of Biologics to the Mouse Eye

1Department of Cell Biology, University of South Carolina, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Division of Research, Medical University of South Carolina, 3Department of Neuroscience, Division of Research, Medical University of South Carolina, 4Division of Research, Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 60162

 JoVE In-Press

Using Optical Coherence Tomography and Optokinetic Response As Structural and Functional Visual System Readouts in Mice and Rats

1Department of Neurology, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, 2Department of Cell Physiology, Faculty of Biology and Biotechnology, Ruhr-University Bochum, 3Division of Neuroinflammation and Glial Biology, Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco

JoVE 58571

 Neuroscience

Engineering Transplantation-suitable Retinal Pigment Epithelium Tissue Derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

1U861, I-Stem, Association Française contre les Myopathies (AFM), Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), 2U861, I-Stem, Association Française contre les Myopathies (AFM), Université Evry Val-d'Essonne (UEVE), 3I-Stem, Association Française contre les Myopathies (AFM), Centre pour L’Etude des Cellules Souches (CECS), 4Banque de tissus humain, Hôpital Saint Louis, Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), 5Sorbonne Université, INSERM, CNRS, Institut de la Vision, F-75012

JoVE 58216

 Developmental Biology

Novel Photoacoustic Microscopy and Optical Coherence Tomography Dual-modality Chorioretinal Imaging in Living Rabbit Eyes

1Kellogg Eye Center, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 3Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, 4Department of Radiology, University of Michigan

JoVE 57135

 Engineering

Regenerative Therapy by Suprachoroidal Cell Autograft in Dry Age-related Macular Degeneration: Preliminary In Vivo Report

1Low Vision Research Centre of Milan, 2Department of Ophthalmology, A. Fiorini Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome, 3Glaucoma and Low Vision Study Center, Department of General Surgery and Organ Transplants, University of Bologna, 4Department of Sense Organs, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, Sapienza University of Rome

JoVE 56469

 Medicine

Fluorescent Dye Labeling of Erythrocytes and Leukocytes for Studying the Flow Dynamics in Mouse Retinal Circulation

1National Healthcare Group Eye Institute, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, 2Singapore Eye Research Institute (SERI), Singapore National Eye Center, 3School of Material Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health Systems, National University of Singapore, 5Ophthalmology Academic Clinical Research Program, DUKE-NUS Graduate Medical School

JoVE 55495

 Medicine

Dissection of Human Retina and RPE-Choroid for Proteomic Analysis

1Barbara & Donald Jonas Stem Cell Laboratory, and Bernard & Shirlee Brown Glaucoma Laboratory, Department of Pathology & Cell Biology, Institute of Human Nutrition, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 2Edward S. Harkness Eye Institute, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, 3Omics Laboratory, Byers Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University, 4Medical Scientist Training Program, University of Iowa, 5Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa, 6Department of Neurology, University of Iowa, 7Department of Ophthalmology, Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), 8Department of Ophthalmology, Federal University of EspÍrito Santo (UFES), 9Palo Alto Veterans Administration, Palo Alto, CA

JoVE 56203

 Biochemistry

A Step by Step Protocol for Subretinal Surgery in Rabbits

1Department of Ophthalmology, University of Bonn, 2Department of Ophthalmology, National University of Singapore, 3Geuder AG, 4Department of Ophthalmology, University of Münster, 5Section on Epithelial and Retinal Physiology and Disease, National Eye Institute/National Institutes of Health, 6Surgical Retina Department, Singapore National Eye Centre

JoVE 53927

 Medicine

Limbal Approach-Subretinal Injection of Viral Vectors for Gene Therapy in Mice Retinal Pigment Epithelium

1Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 2FARB Laboratory, Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, 3College of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University College of Medicine

JoVE 53030

 Neuroscience

Method for the Assessment of Effects of a Range of Wavelengths and Intensities of Red/near-infrared Light Therapy on Oxidative Stress In Vitro

1Experimental and Regenerative Neurosciences, School of Animal Biology, The University of Western Australia, 2School of Animal Biology and The Oceans Institute, The University of Western Australia, 3Experimental and Regenerative Neurosciences, School of Anatomy, Physiology and Human Biology, The University of Western Australia

JoVE 52221

 Biology

Vibratome Sectioning Mouse Retina to Prepare Photoreceptor Cultures

1Department of Genetics, UMR_S 968, Institut de la Vision, 2Department of Visual Information, UMR_S 968, Institut de la Vision, 3Exploratory Team, UMR_S 968, Institut de la Vision, 4Sorbonne Universités, Paris 06, UMR_S 968, Institut de la Vision, 5INSERM, U968, Institut de la Vision, 6CNRS, UMR_7210, Institut de la Vision

JoVE 51954

 Neuroscience

Fundus Photography as a Convenient Tool to Study Microvascular Responses to Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Epidemiological Studies

1Environmental Risk and Health, Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), 2Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, 3Transportation Research Institute, Hasselt University, 4Department of Public Health, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Leuven University

JoVE 51904

 Medicine
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