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Magnesium Chloride: Magnesium chloride. An inorganic compound consisting of one magnesium and two chloride ions. The compound is used in medicine as a source of magnesium ions, which are essential for many cellular activities. It has also been used as a cathartic and in alloys.

Ionic Bonds

JoVE 10665

When atoms gain or lose electrons to achieve a more stable electron configuration they form ions. Ionic bonds are electrostatic attractions between ions with opposite charges. Ionic compounds are rigid and brittle when solid and may dissociate into their constituent ions in water. Covalent compounds, by contrast, remain intact unless a chemical reaction breaks them.

Ionic bonds are reversible electrostatic interactions between ions with opposing charges. Elements that are the most reactive (i.e., have a higher tendency to undergo chemical reactions) include those that only have one valence electron, (e.g., potassium) and those that need one more valence electron (e.g., chlorine). Ions that lose electrons have a positive charge and are referred to as cations. Ions that gain electrons have a negative charge and are called anions. Cations and anions combine in ratios that result in a net charge of 0 for the compound they form. For example, the compound potassium chloride (KCl) contains one chloride ion for each potassium ion, because the charge of potassium is +1 and the charge of chloride is -1. The compound magnesium chloride (MgCl2) contains two chloride ions for each magnesium ion because magnesium’s charge is +2. The electrostatic forces holding ionic compounds together are strong when the compounds are in solid form. Since t

 Core: Biology

Transformation of E. coli Cells Using an Adapted Calcium Chloride Procedure

JoVE 10515

Source: Natalia Martin1, Andrew J. Van Alst1, Rhiannon M. LeVeque1, and Victor J. DiRita1
1 Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University


Bacteria have the ability to exchange genetic material (DeoxyriboNucleic Acid, DNA) in a process known as horizontal gene transfer. Incorporating exogenous DNA…

 Microbiology

PCR: The Polymerase Chain Reaction

JoVE 5056

The polymerase chain reaction, or PCR, is a technique used to amplify DNA through thermocycling – cyles of temperature changes at fixed time intervals. Using a thermostable DNA polymerase, PCR can create numerous copies of DNA from DNA building blocks called dinucleoside triphosphates or dNTPs. There are three steps in PCR: denaturation, annealing, and elongation. Denaturation is the …

 Basic Methods in Cellular and Molecular Biology

Turbidity and Total Solids in Surface Water

JoVE 10015

Source: Laboratories of Margaret Workman and Kimberly Frye - Depaul University


Turbidity and total solids are related measurements addressing clarity of surface waters. Turbidity is an indirect measure of water clarity that determines the amount of light that can pass through the water. Total solids is a direct measurement of solid…

 Environmental Science

Isolation of Fecal Bacteria from Water Samples by Filtration

JoVE 10213

Source: Laboratories of Dr. Ian Pepper and Dr. Charles Gerba - Arizona University
Demonstrating Author: Luisa Ikner


The quality of water destined for use in agricultural, recreational, and domestic settings is of great importance due to the potential for outbreaks of waterborne disease. Microbial agents implicated in such events…

 Environmental Microbiology

Standardized Measurement of Nasal Membrane Transepithelial Potential Difference (NPD)

1Department of Medicine and the Gregory Fleming James Cystic Fibrosis Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 2Department of Pulmonology and Tuberculosis, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3Center for Experimental Medicine, Queens University, Northern Ireland, 4Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, 5Centro Fibrosi Cistica, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata, 6Service de Pneumologie et Allergologie Pédiatriques and Center de Ressources et de Compétence de la Mucoviscidose, Hôpital Necker Enfants Malades, 7INSERM U 1151, Institut Necker Enfants Malades

JoVE 57006

 Medicine

Phage Phenomics: Physiological Approaches to Characterize Novel Viral Proteins

1Department of Biology, San Diego State University, 2Computational Science Research Center, San Diego State University, 3Bioinformatics and Medical Informatics Research Center, San Diego State University, 4Department of Mathematics and Statistics, San Diego State University, 5Department of Computer Science, San Diego State University, 6Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 7SPARC Committee, Broad Institute

JoVE 52854

 Immunology and Infection

Engineering 'Golden' Fluorescence by Selective Pressure Incorporation of Non-canonical Amino Acids and Protein Analysis by Mass Spectrometry and Fluorescence

1Institute of Chemistry L 1, Department of Biocatalysis, Technical University of Berlin, 2Institute of Chemistry PC 14, Department of Bioenergetics, Technical University of Berlin, 3Institute of Chemistry TC 7, Department of Physical Chemistry/Molecular Material Sciences, Technical University of Berlin

JoVE 57017

 Bioengineering

An Electrochemiluminescence-Based Assay for MeCP2 Protein Variants

1Institute of Medical Genetics, Center for Pathobiochemistry and Genetics, Medical University of Vienna (MUV), 2Murdoch Children's Research Institute and Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Discipline of Child & Adolescent Health, Sydney Medical School, 3Department of Medical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Medical University of Vienna

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 61054

 JoVE In-Press

Slicing and Culturing Pig Hearts under Physiological Conditions

1Institute of Molecular Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, 2Department of Bioengineering, University of Louisville, 3Diabetes and Obesity Center, Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, 4Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville, 5Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Manchester, 6Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University

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JoVE 60913

 JoVE In-Press

TurboID-Based Proximity Labeling for In Planta Identification of Protein-Protein Interaction Networks

1State Key Laboratory of Agro-Biotechnology and Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Soil Microbiology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, 2Department of Plant Biology, College of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis, 3Genome Center, College of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis

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JoVE 60728

 JoVE In-Press

Growth of Human and Sheep Corneal Endothelial Cell Layers on Biomaterial Membranes

1Queensland Eye Institute, 2King Faisal University, 3School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health, Queensland University of Technology, 4Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, 5Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, 6Faculty of Medicine, University of Queensland, 7Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, University of Queensland, 8Faculty of Science, University of Western Australia

JoVE 60762

 Bioengineering

Detection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Antisense Protein (ASP) RNA Transcripts in Patients by Strand-Specific RT-PCR

1Division of Immunology and Allergy, Lausanne University Hospital, 2Department of Fundamental Neuroscience, University of Lausanne, 3Department of Biochemistry, Erasmus Medical Center, 4Theoretical Biology and Biophysics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratories, 5Department of Biochemistry, University of Lausanne

JoVE 60511

 Genetics

Screening for Thermotoga maritima Membrane-Bound Pyrophosphatase Inhibitors

1Research Program in Molecular and Integrative Biosciences, University of Helsinki, 2Drug Research Program, Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, 3School of Biomedical Sciences and Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, University of Leeds

JoVE 60619

 Biochemistry

Pre-clinical Model of Cardiac Donation after Circulatory Death

1Centre de recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CRCHUM), 2Deparment of pharmacology and physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal, 3Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network, 4Department of surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal

JoVE 59789

 Medicine

Enhancing the Engraftment of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Cardiomyocytes via a Transient Inhibition of Rho Kinase Activity

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, School of Engineering, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 2Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, School of Medicine, School of Engineering, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 3Department of Cardiac Surgery, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University

JoVE 59452

 Biochemistry

An In Vitro Batch-culture Model to Estimate the Effects of Interventional Regimens on Human Fecal Microbiota

1Department of Internal Medicine- Molecular Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, 3Department of Food Science and Technology, Isfahan University of Technology, 4Research Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, 5Department of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Wake Forest School of Medicine

JoVE 59524

 Immunology and Infection

Evaluation of the Interplay Between the Complement Protein C1q and Hyaluronic Acid in Promoting Cell Adhesion

1Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste, 2Institute for Maternal and Child Health, IRCCS (Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico) Burlo Garofolo, 3Department of Medical, Surgical and Health Science, University of Trieste

JoVE 58688

 Immunology and Infection

Unicellular Selection of Living Cells in Liquid Medium Using Laser Microdissection and a Pressure Catapulting System

1U1165, Université Paris-Diderot, INSERM, 2Pôle de Recherches Sino-Français en Science du Vivant et Génomique, Shanghai Rui Jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 3Laboratoire de Pathologie, AP-HP-Hôpital Saint-Louis, 4Service d’Oncologie Médicale, AP-HP-Hôpital Avicenne, 5Université Paris 13

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58234

 JoVE In-Press
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