Source: Frederick W. Damen and Craig J. Goergen, Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana
In this video, high field, small-bore magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with physiological monitoring is demonstrated to acquire gated cine loops of the murine cardiovascular system. This procedure provides a basis for assessing left-ventricular function, visualizing vascular networks, and quantifying motion of organs due to respiration. Comparable small animal cardiovascular imaging modalities include high-frequency ultrasound and micro-computed tomography (CT); however, each modality is associated with trade-offs that should be considered. While ultrasound does provide high spatial and temporal resolution, imaging artifacts are common. For example, dense tissue (i.e., the sternum and ribs) can limit imaging penetration depth, and hyperechoic signal at the interface between gas and liquid (i.e., pleura surrounding the lungs) can blur contrast in nearby tissue. Micro-CT in contrast does not suffer from as many in-plane artifacts, but does have lower temporal resolution and limited soft-tissue contrast. Furthermore, micro-CT uses X-ray radiation and often requires the use of contrast agents to visualize vasculature, both of which are known to cause side effects at high doses incl…
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive neuroimaging technique used to investigate human brain function and cognition in both healthy individuals and populations with abnormal brain states. Functional MRI utilizes a magnetic resonance signal to detect changes in blood flow that are coupled to neuronal activation when a specific task is performed. This is possible because hemoglobin within the blood has different magnetic properties depending on whether or not it is bound to oxygen. When a certain task is performed, there is an influx of oxygenated blood to brain regions responsible for that function, and this influx can then be detected with specific MRI scan parameters. This phenomenon is termed the blood oxygen level ependent (BOLD) effect, and can be used to create maps of brain activity.
This video begins with a brief overview of how MRI and fMRI signal is obtained. Then, basic experimental design is reviewed, which involves first setting up a stimulus presentation that is specifically designed to test the function that will be mapped. Next, key steps involved in performing the fMRI scan are introduced, including subject safety and setting up at the scanner. Commonly used steps for data processing are then presented, including pre-processing and statistical analysis with the general linear …
Source: Yong P. Chen, PhD, Department of Physics & Astronomy, College of Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
Magnetic fields can be generated by moving charges, such as an electrical current. The magnetic field generated by a current can be calculated from the Maxwell equation. In addition, magnetic objects such as bar magnets can also generate magnetic fields due to microscopic dynamics of charges inside the material. Magnetic fields will exert magnetic force on other moving charges or magnetic objects, with the force proportional to the magnetic field. Magnetic fields are fundamental to electromagnetism and underlie many practical applications ranging from compasses to magnetic resonance imaging.
This experiment will demonstrate magnetic fields produced by a permanent bar magnet as well as an electrical current, using small compass needle magnets that align with magnetic fields. This experiment will also demonstrate the force exerted by the magnetic fields produced by a current on another current-carrying wire.…