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Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or Organelles membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).

Extracellular Recording of Neuronal Activity Combined with Microiontophoretic Application of Neuroactive Substances in Awake Mice

1Auditory Neuroscience Laboratory, Institute of Neuroscience of Castilla y León, University of Salamanca, 2Neural Systems Laboratory, Institute for Systems Research, University of Maryland, 3Medical Research Council Institute of Hearing Research, 4Department of Cell Biology and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Salamanca

JoVE 53914


 Neuroscience

Characterization of Electrode Materials for Lithium Ion and Sodium Ion Batteries Using Synchrotron Radiation Techniques

1Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, 3Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, 4Haldor Topsøe A/S, 5PolyPlus Battery Company

JoVE 50594


 Engineering

An Injectable and Drug-loaded Supramolecular Hydrogel for Local Catheter Injection into the Pig Heart

1Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Laboratory of Chemical Biology, Eindhoven University of Technology, 2Department of Cardiology, Division Heart and Lungs, Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands (ICIN), University Medical Center Utrecht

JoVE 52450


 Bioengineering

Electro-encephalography (EEG)

JoVE 5420

EEG is a non-invasive technique that can measure brain activity. The neural activity generates electrical signals that are recorded by EEG electrodes placed on the scalp. When an individual is engaged in performing a cognitive task, brain activity changes and these changes can be recorded on the EEG graph. Therefore, it is a powerful tool for cognitive scientist aiming to better understand the neural correlates associated with different aspects of cognition, which will ultimately help them devise improved treatments for patients with cognitive deficits. Here, JoVE presents a brief overview of EEG and its applications in cognitive research. First, we discuss where and how EEG signals are generated. Then, we explain the use of EEG in studying cognition along with a detailed step-by-step protocol to perform an EEG experiment. Lastly, the video reviews some specific cognitive experiments that use EEG in combination with other techniques such as functional Magnetic Resonance imaging (fMRI) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS).


 Behavioral Science

Isolation and Kv Channel Recordings in Murine Atrial and Ventricular Cardiomyocytes

1Experimental and Clinical Research Center (ECRC), Charité Medical Faculty and Max-Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC), 2Medical Department, Division of Cardiology, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 3Medical Department, Division of Cardiology and Angiology, Campus Mitte, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin

JoVE 50145


 Biology

An Introduction to Neurophysiology

JoVE 5201

Neurophysiology is broadly defined as the study of nervous system function. In this field, scientists investigate the central and peripheral nervous systems at the level of whole organs, cellular networks, single cells, or even subcellular compartments. A unifying feature of this wide-ranging discipline is an interest in the mechanisms that lead to the generation and propagation of electrical impulses within and between neurons. This subject is important not only for our understanding of the fascinating processes driving human thought, but also for our ability to diagnose and treat disorders related to nervous system malfunction. This video will provide an introduction to the field of neurophysiology, beginning with a brief history of neurophysiological research that showcases landmark studies like Galvani’s observations of twitching frog legs and Eccles’s discovery of the chemical synapse. Next, key questions asked by neurophysiologists are introduced, followed by an overview of some prominent experimental tools used to answer those questions. The methods presented range from techniques used to investigate single cells, like patch clamping, to those that can measure activity across large regions of the brain, like electroencephalography (EEG). Finally, applications of neurophysiological research are discuss


 Neuroscience

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A Multimodal Imaging- and Stimulation-based Method of Evaluating Connectivity-related Brain Excitability in Patients with Epilepsy

1Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 3Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 4Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 5Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital

JoVE 53727


 Medicine

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