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Methylene Chloride: A chlorinated hydrocarbon that has been used as an inhalation anesthetic and acts as a narcotic in high concentrations. Its primary use is as a solvent in manufacturing and food technology.

The Assembly and Application of 'Shear Rings': A Novel Endothelial Model for Orbital, Unidirectional and Periodic Fluid Flow and Shear Stress

1Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center in Shreveport, 2Biological Sciences, Louisiana Tech University, 3Neurology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center in Shreveport, 4Institut Cochin, Inserm U1016, Cnrs Umr8104, Université Paris Descartes

JoVE 54632


Analyzing Cellular Internalization of Nanoparticles and Bacteria by Multi-spectral Imaging Flow Cytometry

1Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, Iowa State University, 2Amnis Corporation, 3Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Iowa State University

JoVE 3884


Cleaning Glassware

JoVE 10342

Source: Vy M. Dong and Daniel Kim, Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA

Organic synthesis is about transforming a readily available reagent into a more valuable product. Having clean glassware is crucial for the efficiency of this process. Dirty glassware can potentially affect the reaction and make isolation of the final product more challenging. Thus, a synthetic chemist must keep the glassware spotless. The methods described here will detail different glass cleaning techniques that are regularly used to remove organics, metals, grease, and salts.

 Organic Chemistry II

Purifying Compounds by Recrystallization

JoVE 10184

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Jimmy Franco - Merrimack College

Recrystallization is a technique used to purify solid compounds.1 Solids tend to be more soluble in hot liquids than in cold liquids. During recrystallization, an impure solid compound is dissolved in a hot liquid until the solution is saturated, and then the liquid is allowed to cool.2 The compound should then form relatively pure crystals. Ideally, any impurities that are present will remain in the solution and will not be incorporated into the growing crystals (Figure 1). The crystals can then be removed from the solution by filtration. Not all of the compound is recoverable — some will remain in the solution and will be lost. Recrystallization is not generally thought of as a separation technique; rather, it is a purification technique in which a small amount of an impurity is removed from a compound. However, if the solubility properties of two compounds are sufficiently different, recrystallization can be used to separate them, even if they are present in nearly equal amounts. Recrystallization works best when most impurities have already been removed by another method, such as extraction or column chromatography. Fi</span>…		</p>
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	<span title='Science Education: Essentials of Organic Chemistry' data-section-id='41' data-section-link='se' class='section_icon section_icon_se_orgchem  section_icon_link  section_icon_noaccess '> <span class='tooltip section_icon_tooltip'>Organic Chemistry <span title='Essentials of Organic Chemistry' data-section-id='41' data-section-link='se' class='section_icon section_icon_se_orgchem'></span></span></span></div>
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PLGA Nanoparticles Formed by Single- or Double-emulsion with Vitamin E-TPGS

1Barrow Brain Tumor Research Center, Barrow Neurological Institute

JoVE 51015


Growing Crystals for X-ray Diffraction Analysis

JoVE 10216

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Jimmy Franco - Merrimack College

X-ray crystallography is a method commonly used to determine the spatial arrangement of atoms in a crystalline solid, which allows for the determination of the three-dimensional shape of a molecule or complex. Determining the three-dimensional structure of a compound is of particular importance, since a compound's structure and function are intimately related. Information about a compound's structure is often used to explain its behavior or reactivity. This is one of the most useful techniques for solving the three-dimensional structure of a compound or complex, and in some cases it may be the only viable method for determining the structure. Growing X-ray quality crystals is the key component of X-ray crystallography. The size and quality of the crystal is often highly dependent on the composition of the compound being examined by X-ray crystallography. Typically compounds containing heavier atoms produce a greater diffraction pattern, thus require smaller crystals. Generally, single crystals with well-defined faces are optimal, and typically for organic compounds, the crystals need to be larger than those containing heavy atoms. Without viable crystals, X-ray crystallography is not feasible. Some molecules are inherently more crystalline than others, thu

 Organic Chemistry

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