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Mineral Oil: A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.
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Two-way Valorization of Blast Furnace Slag: Synthesis of Precipitated Calcium Carbonate and Zeolitic Heavy Metal Adsorbent

1Department of Offshore, Process and Energy Engineering, Cranfield University, 2School of Applied Chemical and Environmental Sciences, Sheridan College Institute of Technology and Advanced Learning, 3School of Engineering, University of Guelph, 4Carbon Systems Engineering, Centre for Combustion, Carbon Capture and Storage, Cranfield University

JoVE 55062


 Engineering

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Physical Properties Of Minerals II: Polymineralic Analysis

JoVE 10001

Source: Laboratory of Alan Lester - University of Colorado Boulder

The physical properties of minerals include various measurable and discernible attributes, including color, streak, magnetic properties, hardness, crystal growth form, and crystal cleavage. These properties are mineral-specific, and they are fundamentally related to a particular mineral’s chemical make-up and atomic structure. This video examines several physical properties that are useful in field and hand sample mineral identification— color, luster, streak, hardness, magnetism, and reaction with acid. Unlike crystal form and crystal cleavage, these properties are somewhat more closely linked to mineral chemical composition than to atomic structure, but both do play a role. It is important to recognize that rocks are aggregates of mineral grains. Most rocks are polymineralic (multiple kinds of mineral grains) but some are effectively monomineralic (composed of a single mineral). Unlike crystal form and cleavage, which are terms reserved for mineral specimens, geologists might on occasion refer to a rock as having a general sort of color, hardness, magnetism, or reaction with acid. In other words, the physical properties looked at here are potentially appropriate for use with rocks as well as with specific minerals.


 Earth Science

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Methods of Soil Resampling to Monitor Changes in the Chemical Concentrations of Forest Soils

1New York Water Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, 2School of Forest Resources, University of Maine, 3Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, 4Northern Research Station, U.S. Forest Service, 5Department of Plant and Soil Science, University of Vermont, 6Ottauquechee NRCD, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, 7Green Mountain National Forest, U.S. Forest Service, 8Direction de la Recherche Forestière, Ministère du Québec, 9Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Syracuse University, 10Division of Environmental Science, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, 11White Mountain National Forest, U.S. Forest Service, 12Natural Resources and Earth System Sciences, University of New Hampshire, 13Greenwich, NY Field Office, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service

JoVE 54815


 Environment

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High-Throughput, Multi-Image Cryohistology of Mineralized Tissues

1Department of Reconstructive Sciences, University of Connecticut Health Center, 2Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Connecticut, 3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Connecticut Health Center, 4Department of Orthopaedics, University of Rochester

JoVE 54468


 Biology

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Safe Handling of Mineral Acids

JoVE 10370

Source: Robert M. Rioux & Taslima A. Zaman, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA

A mineral acid (or inorganic acid) is defined as a water-soluble acid derived from inorganic minerals by chemical reaction as opposed to organic acids (e.g. acetic acid, formic acid). Examples of mineral acids include: • Boric acid (CAS No.10043-35-3) • Chromic acid (CAS No.1333-82-0) • Hydrochloric acid (CAS No.7647-01-0) • Hydrofluoric acid (CAS No. 7664-39-3) • Nitric acid (CAS No. 7697-37-2) • Perchloric acid (CAS No. 7601-90-3) • Phosphoric acid (CAS No.7664-38-2) • Sulfuric acid (CAS No.7664-93-9) Mineral acids are commonly found in research laboratories and their corrosive nature makes them a significant safety risk. Since they are important reagents in the research laboratory and often do not have substitutes, it is important that they are handled properly and with care. Some acids are even shock sensitive and under certain conditions may cause explosions (i.e., salts of perchloric acid).


 Lab Safety

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Preparation of Authigenic Pyrite from Methane-bearing Sediments for In Situ Sulfur Isotope Analysis Using SIMS

1School of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, 2School of Marine Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, 3Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Resources and Coastal Engineering, 4South China Sea Bio-Resource Exploitation and Utilization Collaborative Innovation Center, 5Institut für Geologie, Universität Hamburg, 6Institut für Geologie und Paläontologie, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, 7Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey

JoVE 55970


 Environment

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Mammalian Cell Encapsulation in Alginate Beads Using a Simple Stirred Vessel

1Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, 2Michael Smith Laboratories & Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, 3Michael Smith Laboratories & Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia

JoVE 55280


 Bioengineering

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Physical Properties Of Minerals I: Crystals and Cleavage

JoVE 10007

Source: Laboratory of Alan Lester - University of Colorado Boulder

The physical properties of minerals comprise various measurable and discernible attributes, including color, streak, magnetic properties, hardness, crystal growth form, and crystal cleavage. Each of these properties are mineral-specific, and they are fundamentally related to a particular mineral’s chemical make-up and atomic structure. This experiment examines two properties that stem primarily from symmetric repetition of fundamental, structural atomic groupings, called unit cells, within a crystal lattice, a crystal growth form, and crystal cleavage. Crystal growth form is the macroscopic expression of atomic-level symmetry, generated by the natural growth process of adding unit cells (the molecular building blocks of minerals) to a growing crystal lattice. Zones of rapid unit-cell-addition become the edges between the planar surfaces, i.e. faces, of the crystal. It is important to recognize that rocks are aggregates of mineral grains. Most rocks are polymineralic (multiple kinds of mineral grains) but some are effectively monomineralic (composed of a single mineral). Because rocks are combinations of minerals, rocks are not referred to as having crystal form. In some cases, geologists refer to rocks as having a general cleavage, but here the term is simply used


 Earth Science

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Proximal Cadaveric Femur Preparation for Fracture Strength Testing and Quantitative CT-based Finite Element Analysis

1Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, 2Division of Engineering, Mayo Clinic, 3Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, 4Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

JoVE 54925


 Medicine

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Characterization of Calcification Events Using Live Optical and Electron Microscopy Techniques in a Marine Tubeworm

1Department of Biological Sciences, Clemson University, 2Department of Marine Biodiversity Research (BioDive), Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), 3Advanced Material Research Laboratory (AMRL), Clemson University, 4Swire Institute of Marine Sciences and School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong

JoVE 55164


 Biology

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Calcification of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells and Imaging of Aortic Calcification and Inflammation

1Anesthesia Center for Critical Care Research of the Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care, and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 2Cardiovascular Research Center and Cardiology Division of the Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 3Cardiovascular Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 4Harvard Medical School, 5Department of Anesthesiology, Uniklinik RWTH Aachen, RWTH Aachen University, 6Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Diseases and the Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Immunology of the Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital

JoVE 54017


 Medicine

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Combinational Treatment of Trichostatin A and Vitamin C Improves the Efficiency of Cloning Mice by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

1Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of Biology-Oriented Science and Technology, Kindai University, 2Faculty of Biology-Oriented Science and Technology, Kindai University, 3Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute and Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, 4Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, 5Institute of Advanced Technology, Kindai University

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 57036


 JoVE In-Press

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Pulling Membrane Nanotubes from Giant Unilamellar Vesicles

1Laboratoire Physico Chimie Curie, Institut Curie, PSL Research University, CNRS UMR168, 2Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases, T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard Medical School, 3Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, 4Sorbonne Universités, UPMC University Paris 06, 5Center for Studies in Physics and Biology, The Rockefeller University

JoVE 56086


 Biology

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Technique to Target Microinjection to the Developing Xenopus Kidney

1Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Research Center, University of Texas McGovern Medical School, 2Program in Genes & Development, University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 3Program in Cell & Regulatory Biology, University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 4Department of Genetics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center

JoVE 53799


 Developmental Biology

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Semiautomated Longitudinal Microcomputed Tomography-based Quantitative Structural Analysis of a Nude Rat Osteoporosis-related Vertebral Fracture Model

1Skeletal Biotech Laboratory, Hebrew University-Hadassah Faculty of Dental Medicine, 2Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 3Board of Governors Regenerative Medicine Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 4Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 5Department of Orthopedics, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center

JoVE 55928


 Bioengineering

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