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Mitotic Index: An expression of the number of mitoses found in a stated number of cells.
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Preparing and Administering Intermittent Intravenous Medications with an Infusion Pump

JoVE 10277

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT

Primary intermittent intravenous (IV) infusions are delivered alone as volume-controlled infusions, while secondary infusions are delivered with another IV fluid, usually maintenance fluids. Intermittent infusions are delivered over a specific amount of time, which is dictated by the type of medication, such as IV antibiotics. High-volume IV medications, anywhere from 50- to 500-mL infusions, are typically delivered using an infusion pump as either primary or secondary infusions. Infusion pumps deliver IV fluids in a volume-controlled manner, keeping medication side effects to a minimum and helping to prevent nurse medication errors. Careful review of the medication compatibility with maintenance fluids using an approved medication drug guide, pharmacy recommendations in the Medication Administration Record (MAR), and physician orders must be assessed prior to delivering an IV medication. This review will determine if primary or secondary delivery is appropriate based on the risk for patient harm, such as for concentrated electrolyte preparations like potassium. Certain medical conditions that preclude oral fluid intake, specific medication preparations, or situations that require an inc


 Nursing Skills

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Lipid Bilayer Vesicle Generation Using Microfluidic Jetting

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas at Austin, 4Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, 5Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

JoVE 51510


 Bioengineering

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Neurovascular Network Explorer 2.0: A Simple Tool for Exploring and Sharing a Database of Optogenetically-evoked Vasomotion in Mouse Cortex In Vivo

1Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, 2Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, 3Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, 4Department of Physics, John Carroll University, 5Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, 6Bioengineering Undergraduate Program, University of California, San Diego, 7Institute of Physical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, 8Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School

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JoVE 57214


 JoVE In-Press

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An Analytical Tool that Quantifies Cellular Morphology Changes from Three-dimensional Fluorescence Images

1Medications Development, Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, University of California, San Francisco, 2Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of California, San Francisco, 3Translational Research Institute and the Institute for Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia

JoVE 4233


 Biology

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Cranial Nerves Exam I (I-VI)

JoVE 10091

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

During each section of the neurological testing, the examiner uses the powers of observation to assess the patient. In some cases, cranial nerve dysfunction is readily apparent: a patient might mention a characteristic chief complaint (such as loss of smell or diplopia), or a visually evident physical sign of cranial nerve involvement, such as in facial nerve palsy. However, in many cases a patient's history doesn't directly suggest cranial nerve pathologies, as some of them (such as sixth nerve palsy) may have subtle manifestations and can only be uncovered by a careful neurological exam. Importantly, a variety of pathological conditions that are associated with alterations in mental status (such as some neurodegenerative disorders or brain lesions) can also cause cranial nerve dysfunction; therefore, any abnormal findings during a mental status exam should prompt a careful and complete neurological exam. The cranial nerve examination is applied neuroanatomy. The cranial nerves are symmetrical; therefore, while performing the examination, the examiner should compare each side to the other. A physician should approach the examination in a


 Physical Examinations III

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Regeneration of Arrayed Gold Microelectrodes Equipped for a Real-Time Cell Analyzer

1School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 2School of Pharmacy, Nanjing Medical University, 3State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, 4Department of Medical Oncology, Jiangsu Cancer Hospital, Nanjing Medical University

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JoVE 56250


 JoVE In-Press

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Automated Quantification of Hematopoietic Cell – Stromal Cell Interactions in Histological Images of Undecalcified Bone

1Immunodynamics, German Rheumatism Research Center, a Leibniz Institute, 2Biophysical Analytics, German Rheumatism Research Center, a Leibniz Institute, 3Max-Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, 4Wimasis GmbH, 5Immunodynamics and Intravital Imaging, Charité - University of Medicine

JoVE 52544


 Developmental Biology

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Whole-brain Segmentation and Change-point Analysis of Anatomical Brain MRI—Application in Premanifest Huntington's Disease

1The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 2Center for Imaging Science, Johns Hopkins University, 3Institute for Computational Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, 4Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Johns Hopkins University, 5Division of Neurobiology, Departments of Psychiatry, Neurology, Neuroscience and Pharmacology, and Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 6F.M. Kirby Research Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Kennedy Krieger Institute, 7Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University

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JoVE 57256


 JoVE In-Press

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Analysis of Cell Suspensions Isolated from Solid Tissues by Spectral Flow Cytometry

1Flow Cytometry Core Facility, Center for Translational Research-Technical Core, Institut Pasteur, 2Unit for Lymphopoiesis, Immunology Department, INSERM U1223, University Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Cellule Pasteur, Institut Pasteur, 3Stem-Cell Microenvironments in Repair/Regeneration Team, Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde (i3s), INEB - Instituto de Engenharia Biomédica, 4ICBAS - Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar, Universidade do Porto, 5Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine Team, UMRS 1166, ICAN - Institute of Cardiometabolism And Nutrition, UPMC - Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6, INSERM

JoVE 55578


 Biology

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Motor Exam I

JoVE 10052

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Abnormalities in the motor function are associated with a wide range of diseases, from movement disorders and myopathies to strokes. The motor assessment starts with observation of the patient. When the patient enters the examination area, the clinician observes the patient's ability to walk unassisted and the speed and coordination while moving. Taking the patient's history provides an additional opportunity to observe for evidence of tremors or other abnormal movements, such as chorea or tardive dyskinesia. Such simple but important observations can yield valuable clues to the diagnosis and help to focus the rest of the examination. The motor assessment continues in a systematic fashion, including inspection for muscle atrophy and abnormal movements, assessment of muscle tone, muscle strength testing, and finally the examination of the muscle reflexes and coordination. The careful systematic testing of the motor system and the integration of all the findings provide insight to the level at which the motor pathway is affected, and also help the clinician to formulate the differential diagnosis and determine the course of the subsequent evaluation and treatment.


 Physical Examinations III

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Peripheral Vascular Exam Using a Continuous Wave Doppler

JoVE 10123

Source: Joseph Donroe, MD, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT

Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is a common condition affecting older adults and includes disease of the peripheral arteries and veins. While the history and physical exam offer clues to its diagnosis, Doppler ultrasound has become a routine part of the bedside vascular examination. The video titled "The Peripheral Vascular Exam" gave a detailed review of the physical examination of the peripheral arterial and venous systems. This video specifically reviews the bedside assessment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and chronic venous insufficiency using a handheld continuous wave Doppler. The handheld Doppler (HHD) is a simple instrument that utilizes continuous transmission and reception of ultrasound (also referred to as continuous wave Doppler) to detect changes in blood velocity as it courses through a vessel. The Doppler probe contains a transmitting element that emits ultrasound and a receiving element that detects ultrasound waves (Figure 1). The emitted ultrasound is reflected off of moving blood and back to the probe at a frequency directly related to the velocity of blood flow. The reflected signal is detected and transduced to an audible sound with a frequen


 Physical Examinations I

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Tube Thoracostomy

JoVE 10283

Source: Rachel Liu, BAO, MBBCh, Emergency Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

Tube thoracostomy (chest tube placement) is a procedure during which a hollow tube is inserted into the thoracic cavity for drainage of fluid or air. Emergency chest tube insertion is performed for definitive treatment of tension pneumothorax, traumatic hemothorax, large-volume pleural effusions, and empyemas. Irrespective of the cause of air and fluid accumulation in the pleural space, the drainage relieves lung compression and enables lung re-expansion. In pneumothorax, air accumulation in the pleural cavity separates pleural layers, which prevents lung expansion during the respiration. Abnormal fluid accumulation, such as in case of hemothorax or empyema, causes separation of the visceral pleura that adheres to lung tissue from the parietal pleura that forms the lining of the chest cavity. The uncoupling of the pleural layers leads to disconnection of chest wall movement from the lung movement, causing respiratory distress. In addition, excessive pressure from overwhelming amounts of air or fluid in the pleura may push the mediastinum away from the central chest, causing inability of blood to return to the heart. In the trauma setting, a chest tube may


 Emergency Medicine and Critical Care

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