Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN
The collection of blood from mice and rats for analysis can be done through a variety of methods. Each method of collection has variations in the type of restraint required, the invasiveness of the procedure, and the necessity of a general anesthetic.1Historically, the use of the retro-orbital sinus cavity has been used, but not without debate. The controversy related to the potential tissue damage,or even blindness,caused by retro-orbital bleeds has led to the development of facial and submandibular vein bleeding methods in mice.Blood collection from the saphenous vein in both mice and rats is another technique that has been developed. These procedures do not require anesthesia and therefore are suitable when the use of anesthetics may confound blood results or other data.
Lab Animal Research
1Charité Center for Internal Medicine and Dermatology, Division General Internal and Psychosomatic Medicine, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Martin-Luther Hospital, Academic Teaching Institution of Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 3Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Molecular Cancer Research Center (MKFZ), Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin
Immunology and Infection
Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT
The purpose of peripheral intravenous catheter (PIV) insertion is to infuse medications, perform intravenous (IV) fluid therapy, or inject radioactive tracers for special examination procedures. Placing a PIV is an invasive procedure and requires the use of an aseptic, no-touch technique.
Common IV venipuncture sites are the arms and hands in adults and the feet in children. According to the Intravenous Nurses Society (INS), the feet should be avoided in the adult population because of the risk of thrombophlebitis. Venipuncture sites should be carefully assessed for contraindications, such as pain, wounds, decreased circulation, a previous cerebral vascular accident (CVA), dialysis fistulas, or a mastectomy on the same side. The median cubital vein and the cephalic vein in the wrist area should be avoided when possible. The cephalic vein has been associated with nerve damage when used for IV placements. The most distal site available on the hand or arm is preferred so that future venipuncture sites may be used if infiltration or extravasation occurs.
This video will demonstrate the insertion of a PIV, including the preparation and attachment of an IV extension s…
1Enzyme Research Team, RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science
1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 2Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 3Division of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 4Curriculum in Genetics and Molecular Biology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 5Biological and Biomedical Sciences Program, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 6Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, 7Department of Neurology, Neurosciences Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine
1Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, 2Department of Science, Augustana Faculty, University of Alberta, 3Laboratoire Génie Civil et géo-Environnement, Université de Lille, 4Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Mount Royal University, 5Forest Ecology & Production, Great Lakes Forestry Centre, Natural Resources Canada
Source: Robert E. Sallis, MD. Kaiser Permanente, Fontana, California, USA
The wrist is a complex joint made up of 8 carpal bones and their numerous articulations and ligaments. Overlying the wrist are the tendons and muscles of the hand and fingers. The hand is made up of 5 metacarpal bones, and the tendons that run to the hand overlie these bones. Finally, the fingers consist of 14 phalanges with their articulations held together by collateral ligaments and volar plates. Common mechanisms of both acute and chronic wrist injury include impact, weight bearing (which can occur in gymnastics), twisting, and throwing. Osteoarthritis of the hand commonly affects distal interphalangeal (DIP) and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints, while rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is seen in the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and PIP joints.
It is important to compare the injured wrist or hand to the uninvolved side. Key aspects of the wrist and hand exam include inspection, palpation for tenderness or deformity, testing the range of motion (ROM) and strength, neurovascular assessment, ligaments and tendon testing, and the special tests.…
Physical Examinations III
1VECT-HORUS SAS, 2Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, NICN UMR 7259
1Department of Pathology, Instituto Lauro de Souza Lima (ILSL), 2Laboratory Animal House, Instituto Lauro de Souza Lima (ILSL), 3Department of Microbiology, Instituto Lauro de Souza Lima (ILSL), 4Department of Pharmacology, Instituto Lauro de Souza Lima (ILSL)
Immunology and Infection
1Epigenetics and Cell Fate, UMR 7216 CNRS, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique CNRS - Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité
Source: Laboratories of Judith Danovitch and Nicholaus Noles—University of Louisville
A person is defined as a unique individual based on the people and events they encounter in their lives. Thus, creating, storing, and recalling memories are essential elements of the human experience. However, memory, as adults experience it, takes time to develop. Although young children can learn facts and remember details of their lives from moment-to-moment and day-to-day, they do not create autobiographical memories or detailed memories of events that happen in their lives until age 3 or older.
Even after age 3, children’s memories differ from those of adults in important ways. Children are less effective at evaluating their own memories than adults, which makes it difficult for them to determine, for example, whether or not their memories are accurate. False memories are a problem for both children and adults, as it is quite easy to create a false memory with a poorly-worded question or a story repeated over and over. However, young children are more susceptible to creating false memories than either older children or adults.
This video demonstrates children’s vulnerability to false memories using a method developed by Steven Ceci and his collaborators.1-2…
1Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, 2Department of Economics, University of Houston, 3Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University
1Cancer Biology, UCL Cancer Institute
1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester
1Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital - Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, University of Cambridge - Addenbrooke's Hospital, 3Lung Transplant Program, Brigham and Women's Hospital - Harvard Medical School, 4COPD and IPF Programs, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute
1Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center
1Center for Molecular Bacteriology and Infection, Imperial College London
Immunology and Infection
1Specialty Chemicals & Materials Company, JX Nippon Oil & Energy Corporation, 2Department of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3Central Technical Research Laboratory, JX Nippon Oil & Energy Corporation
1Neurology and Rehabilitative Medicine, University of Cincinnati, 2Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Cincinnati, 3Department of Athletics, University of Cincinnati, 4Department of Neurosurgery, University of Cincinnati, 5College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services, University of Cincinnati, 6Division of Sports Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Akron, 2Saint Vincent Saint Mary's High School
1Interfaculty Institute for Biochemistry, 2Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, 3German Cancer Research Center
1Department of Biological Sciences, Auburn University
Source: James W Bonz, MD, Emergency Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
Central venous access is necessary in a multitude of clinical situations for hemodynamic monitoring, medication delivery, and blood sampling. There are three veins in the body that are accessed for central venous cannulation: the internal jugular, the subclavian, and the femoral vein.
Central venous access via the subclavian vein has several advantages over other possible locations. The subclavian central venous catheter (CVC) placement is associated with lower infection and thrombosis rate than internal jugular and femoral CVC. Subclavian line can be placed quickly using anatomic landmarks and are often performed in trauma settings when cervical collars obliterate the access to the internal jugular (IJ) vein. The most significant disadvantage of the subclavian access is the risk of pneumothorax due to the anatomic proximity to the dome of the lung, which lies just superficial to the subclavian vein. In addition, in the event of an inadvertent arterial puncture, the access to the subclavian artery is impeded by the clavicle, which makes it difficult to effectively compress the vessel.
Successful placement of the subclavian CVC requires good working understanding of the tar…
Emergency Medicine and Critical Care
1Department of Biological Psychology, Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen, 2Dipartimento di Psicologia, Università di Bologna
1Analytical Science Division, National Physical Laboratory
1Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, 2Department of Biology, York College/CUNY, 3Department of Biology, Western Ontario University
1Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, University of Colorado, Denver, 2Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado, Boulder
1Institut Curie, Centre de Recherche, CNRS, UMR 168, PhysicoChimie Curie, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 2Kavli Institute for Brain and Mind, University of California, San Diego, 3Molecular Physiology and Biophysics Section, National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institute of Health
1Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2Joint Bioenergy Institute, Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 3National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
1School of Science, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, 2BlueScope Steel Research, 3Infrared Microspectroscopy Beamline, Australian Synchrotron, 4School of Science, College of Science, Engineering and Health, RMIT University
1Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 3Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Harvard Medical School, 4The Barbara K. Ostrom (1978) Bioinformatics and Computing Facility in the Swanson Biotechnology Center, Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 5BioMicro Center, Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
1NIH Stem Cell Unit, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, 2Craniofacial and Skeletal Diseases Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health
1Center for Theoretical Problems of Physicochemical Pharmacology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 2Federal Research Center of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology, Moscow, Russia, 3Physiology Department, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania