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Mitotic Index: An expression of the number of mitoses found in a stated number of cells.
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Blood Withdrawal II

JoVE 10247

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

The collection of blood from mice and rats for analysis can be done through a variety of methods. Each method of collection has variations in the type of restraint required, the invasiveness of the procedure, and the necessity of a general anesthetic.1Historically, the use of the retro-orbital sinus cavity has been used, but not without debate. The controversy related to the potential tissue damage,or even blindness,caused by retro-orbital bleeds has led to the development of facial and submandibular vein bleeding methods in mice.Blood collection from the saphenous vein in both mice and rats is another technique that has been developed. These procedures do not require anesthesia and therefore are suitable when the use of anesthetics may confound blood results or other data.


 Lab Animal Research

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A RAPID Method for Blood Processing to Increase the Yield of Plasma Peptide Levels in Human Blood

1Charité Center for Internal Medicine and Dermatology, Division General Internal and Psychosomatic Medicine, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Martin-Luther Hospital, Academic Teaching Institution of Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 3Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Molecular Cancer Research Center (MKFZ), Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin

JoVE 53959


 Immunology and Infection

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Peripheral Intravenous Catheter Insertion

JoVE 10264

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT

The purpose of peripheral intravenous catheter (PIV) insertion is to infuse medications, perform intravenous (IV) fluid therapy, or inject radioactive tracers for special examination procedures. Placing a PIV is an invasive procedure and requires the use of an aseptic, no-touch technique. Common IV venipuncture sites are the arms and hands in adults and the feet in children. According to the Intravenous Nurses Society (INS), the feet should be avoided in the adult population because of the risk of thrombophlebitis. Venipuncture sites should be carefully assessed for contraindications, such as pain, wounds, decreased circulation, a previous cerebral vascular accident (CVA), dialysis fistulas, or a mastectomy on the same side. The median cubital vein and the cephalic vein in the wrist area should be avoided when possible. The cephalic vein has been associated with nerve damage when used for IV placements. The most distal site available on the hand or arm is preferred so that future venipuncture sites may be used if infiltration or extravasation occurs. This video will demonstrate the insertion of a PIV, including the preparation and attachment of an IV extension s


 Nursing Skills

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Modeling Astrocytoma Pathogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo Using Cortical Astrocytes or Neural Stem Cells from Conditional, Genetically Engineered Mice

1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 2Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 3Division of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 4Curriculum in Genetics and Molecular Biology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 5Biological and Biomedical Sciences Program, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 6Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, 7Department of Neurology, Neurosciences Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine

JoVE 51763


 Neuroscience

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Extraction and Analysis of Microbial Phospholipid Fatty Acids in Soils

1Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, 2Department of Science, Augustana Faculty, University of Alberta, 3Laboratoire Génie Civil et géo-Environnement, Université de Lille, 4Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Mount Royal University, 5Forest Ecology & Production, Great Lakes Forestry Centre, Natural Resources Canada

JoVE 54360


 Environment

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Wrist and Hand Examination

JoVE 10242

Source: Robert E. Sallis, MD. Kaiser Permanente, Fontana, California, USA

The wrist is a complex joint made up of 8 carpal bones and their numerous articulations and ligaments. Overlying the wrist are the tendons and muscles of the hand and fingers. The hand is made up of 5 metacarpal bones, and the tendons that run to the hand overlie these bones. Finally, the fingers consist of 14 phalanges with their articulations held together by collateral ligaments and volar plates. Common mechanisms of both acute and chronic wrist injury include impact, weight bearing (which can occur in gymnastics), twisting, and throwing. Osteoarthritis of the hand commonly affects distal interphalangeal (DIP) and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints, while rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is seen in the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and PIP joints. It is important to compare the injured wrist or hand to the uninvolved side. Key aspects of the wrist and hand exam include inspection, palpation for tenderness or deformity, testing the range of motion (ROM) and strength, neurovascular assessment, ligaments and tendon testing, and the special tests.


 Physical Examinations III

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High-throughput Parallel Sequencing to Measure Fitness of Leptospira interrogans Transposon Insertion Mutants During Golden Syrian Hamster Infection

1Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, 2Departments of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles, 3Departments of Urology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles, 4Departments of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, University of California Los Angeles

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56442


 JoVE In-Press

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Optimized Protocols for Mycobacterium leprae Strain Management: Frozen Stock Preservation and Maintenance in Athymic Nude Mice

1Department of Pathology, Instituto Lauro de Souza Lima (ILSL), 2Laboratory Animal House, Instituto Lauro de Souza Lima (ILSL), 3Department of Microbiology, Instituto Lauro de Souza Lima (ILSL), 4Department of Pharmacology, Instituto Lauro de Souza Lima (ILSL)

JoVE 50620


 Immunology and Infection

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Anatomically Inspired Three-dimensional Micro-tissue Engineered Neural Networks for Nervous System Reconstruction, Modulation, and Modeling

1Department of Bioengineering, School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Pennsylvania, 2Center for Brain Injury & Repair, Department of Neurosurgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3Center for Neurotrauma, Neurodegeneration & Restoration, Michael J. Crescenz Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 4School of Biomedical Engineering, Drexel University

JoVE 55609


 Neuroscience

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Memory Development: Demonstrating How Repeated Questioning Leads to False Memories

JoVE 10129

Source: Laboratories of Judith Danovitch and Nicholaus Noles—University of Louisville

A person is defined as a unique individual based on the people and events they encounter in their lives. Thus, creating, storing, and recalling memories are essential elements of the human experience. However, memory, as adults experience it, takes time to develop. Although young children can learn facts and remember details of their lives from moment-to-moment and day-to-day, they do not create autobiographical memories or detailed memories of events that happen in their lives until age 3 or older. Even after age 3, children’s memories differ from those of adults in important ways. Children are less effective at evaluating their own memories than adults, which makes it difficult for them to determine, for example, whether or not their memories are accurate. False memories are a problem for both children and adults, as it is quite easy to create a false memory with a poorly-worded question or a story repeated over and over. However, young children are more susceptible to creating false memories than either older children or adults. This video demonstrates children’s vulnerability to false memories using a method developed by Steven Ceci and his collaborators.1-2


 Developmental Psychology

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Automated Measurement of Pulmonary Emphysema and Small Airway Remodeling in Cigarette Smoke-exposed Mice

1Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital - Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, University of Cambridge - Addenbrooke's Hospital, 3Lung Transplant Program, Brigham and Women's Hospital - Harvard Medical School, 4COPD and IPF Programs, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute

JoVE 52236


 Medicine

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Vision Training Methods for Sports Concussion Mitigation and Management

1Neurology and Rehabilitative Medicine, University of Cincinnati, 2Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Cincinnati, 3Department of Athletics, University of Cincinnati, 4Department of Neurosurgery, University of Cincinnati, 5College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services, University of Cincinnati, 6Division of Sports Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center

JoVE 52648


 Behavior

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Right Ventricular Systolic Pressure Measurements in Combination with Harvest of Lung and Immune Tissue Samples in Mice

1Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo, 2Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, & Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 3Division of Pulmonary Medicine, New York University School of Medicine

JoVE 50023


 Immunology and Infection

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Central Venous Catheter Insertion: Subclavian Vein

JoVE 10241

Source: James W Bonz, MD, Emergency Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

Central venous access is necessary in a multitude of clinical situations for hemodynamic monitoring, medication delivery, and blood sampling. There are three veins in the body that are accessed for central venous cannulation: the internal jugular, the subclavian, and the femoral vein. Central venous access via the subclavian vein has several advantages over other possible locations. The subclavian central venous catheter (CVC) placement is associated with lower infection and thrombosis rate than internal jugular and femoral CVC. Subclavian line can be placed quickly using anatomic landmarks and are often performed in trauma settings when cervical collars obliterate the access to the internal jugular (IJ) vein. The most significant disadvantage of the subclavian access is the risk of pneumothorax due to the anatomic proximity to the dome of the lung, which lies just superficial to the subclavian vein. In addition, in the event of an inadvertent arterial puncture, the access to the subclavian artery is impeded by the clavicle, which makes it difficult to effectively compress the vessel. Successful placement of the subclavian CVC requires good working understanding of the tar


 Emergency Medicine and Critical Care

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Engineering Adherent Bacteria by Creating a Single Synthetic Curli Operon

1UMR CNRS 5557 Ecologie Microbienne, Université Lyon 1, Université de Lyon, 2Département Biosciences, INSA de Lyon, Université de Lyon, 3INSERM U758, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Université de Lyon, 4Laboratoire de Génie Civil et Ingénierie Environnementale, INSA de Lyon, Université de Lyon

JoVE 4176


 Bioengineering

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Reconstitution of a Transmembrane Protein, the Voltage-gated Ion Channel, KvAP, into Giant Unilamellar Vesicles for Microscopy and Patch Clamp Studies

1Institut Curie, Centre de Recherche, CNRS, UMR 168, PhysicoChimie Curie, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 2Kavli Institute for Brain and Mind, University of California, San Diego, 3Molecular Physiology and Biophysics Section, National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institute of Health

JoVE 52281


 Biology

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From Voxels to Knowledge: A Practical Guide to the Segmentation of Complex Electron Microscopy 3D-Data

1Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2Joint Bioenergy Institute, Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 3National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

JoVE 51673


 Bioengineering

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Quantitative Analysis of Autophagy using Advanced 3D Fluorescence Microscopy

1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of California, Davis, 2NSF Center for Biophotonics Science & Technology, University of California, Davis, 3University of Tromsø, 4Department of Surgery (Division of Surgical Oncology), University of California, Davis, 5UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Davis, 6Department of Biological Chemistry, University of California, Davis

JoVE 50047


 Biology

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The Evolution of Silica Nanoparticle-polyester Coatings on Surfaces Exposed to Sunlight

1School of Science, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, 2BlueScope Steel Research, 3Infrared Microspectroscopy Beamline, Australian Synchrotron, 4School of Science, College of Science, Engineering and Health, RMIT University

JoVE 54309


 Engineering

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Detection of Copy Number Alterations Using Single Cell Sequencing

1Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 3Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Harvard Medical School, 4The Barbara K. Ostrom (1978) Bioinformatics and Computing Facility in the Swanson Biotechnology Center, Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 5BioMicro Center, Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

JoVE 55143


 Genetics

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