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Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
 JoVE In-Press

Non-invasive Assessment of Changes in Corticomotoneuronal Transmission in Humans

1Department of Medicine, Movement and Sport Science, University of Fribourg (Switzerland), 2Department of Sport Science, University of Freiburg (Germany), 3Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, 4Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 52663

 JoVE Behavior

Design and Implementation of an fMRI Study Examining Thought Suppression in Young Women with, and At-risk, for Depression

1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, 2McMaster Integrative Neuroscience Discovery and Study, McMaster University, 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Calgary, 4Department of Psychology, Neuroscience & Behaviour, McMaster University


JoVE 52061

 JoVE Neuroscience

The Use of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy as a Tool for the Measurement of Bi-hemispheric Transcranial Electric Stimulation Effects on Primary Motor Cortex Metabolism

1Department of Psychology, University of Montréal, 2Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, 3Center for Magnetic Resonance Research and Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota


JoVE 51631

 JoVE Medicine

A Multimodal Imaging- and Stimulation-based Method of Evaluating Connectivity-related Brain Excitability in Patients with Epilepsy

1Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 3Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 4Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 5Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital


JoVE 53727

 Science Education: Essentials of Neuropsychology

Using TMS to Measure Motor Excitability During Action Observation

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Jonas T. Kaplan and Sarah I. Gimbel—University of Southern California

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that involves passing current through an insulated coil placed against the scalp. A brief magnetic field is created by current in the coil, and because of the physical process of induction, this leads to a current in the nearby neural tissue. Depending on the duration, frequency, and magnitude of these magnetic pulses, the underlying neural circuitry can be affected in many different ways. Here, we demonstrate the technique of single-pulse TMS, in which one brief magnetic pulse is used to stimulate the neocortex. One observable effect of TMS is that it can produce muscle twitches when applied over the motor cortex. Due to the somatotopic organization of the motor cortex, different muscles can be targeted depending on the precise placement of the coil. The electrical signals that cause these muscle twitches, called motor evoked potentials, or MEPs, can be recorded and quantified by electrodes placed on the skin over the targeted muscle. The amplitude of MEPs can be interpreted to reflect the underlying excitability of the motor cortex; for example, when the motor cortex is activated, observed MEPs are larger.

 JoVE In-Press

A Protocol for the Administration of Real-Time FMRI Neurofeedback Training

1Office of the Vice President for Research and Graduate Studies, Wright State University, 2Department of Biomedical, Industrial and Human Factors Engineering, Wright State University, 3Pediatric Radiology and Medical Imaging, Dayton Children's Hospital, 4Department of Trauma Care and Surgery, Boonshoft School of Medicine, Wright State University, 5Department of Defense Hearing Center of Excellence, JBSA-Lackland, 6Department of Neurology, Boonshoft School of Medicine, Wright State University

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JoVE 55543

 JoVE Behavior

Combined Invasive Subcortical and Non-invasive Surface Neurophysiological Recordings for the Assessment of Cognitive and Emotional Functions in Humans

1Institute of Clinical Neuroscience and Medical Psychology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University, 2Department of Neurology, Center for Movement Disorders and Neuromodulation, University Clinic Düsseldorf, 3Department of Neurosurgery, Functional Neurosurgery and Stereotaxy, Center for Movement Disorders and Neuromodulation, University Clinic Düsseldorf


JoVE 53466

 Science Education: Essentials of Neuropsychology

Motor Maps

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Jonas T. Kaplan and Sarah I. Gimbel—University of Southern California

One principle of brain organization is the topographic mapping of information. Especially in sensory and motor cortices, adjacent regions of the brain tend to represent information from adjacent parts of the body, resulting in maps of the body expressed on the surface of the brain. The primary sensory and motor maps in the brain surround a prominent sulcus known as the central sulcus. The cortex anterior to the central sulcus is known as the precentral gyrus and contains the primary motor cortex, while the cortex posterior to the central sulcus is known as the postcentral gyrus and contains the primary sensory cortex (Figure 1). Figure 1: Sensory and motor maps around the central sulcus. The primary motor cortex, which contains a motor map of the body's effectors, is anterior to the central sulcus, in the precentral gyrus of the frontal lobe. The primary somesthetic (sensory) cortex, which receives touch, pain, and temperature information from the external parts of the body, is located posterior to the central sulcus, in the postcentral gyrus of the parietal lobe.

 JoVE Medicine

Methods to Quantify Pharmacologically Induced Alterations in Motor Function in Human Incomplete SCI

1Sensory Motor Performance Program, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, 2Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition, University of Illinois at Chicago, 3Department of Physical Therapy, University of Illinois at Chicago


JoVE 2148

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