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 Science Education: Essentials of Cognitive Psychology

Motor Learning in Mirror Drawing

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Jonathan Flombaum—Johns Hopkins University

Colloquially, the terms learning and memory encompass a broad range of behaviors and mental systems, everything from learning to tie a shoe to mastering calculus (and a lot in between). Experimental psychologists have divided up learning mechanisms into groups that seem to have different properties, and that seem to rely on different brain systems. A major division is between declarative and non-declarative memory, roughly, the sorts of things a person can express verbally—explicitly, like a birthdate, or what one ate for lunch—and things they cannot quite put into words—things they know implicitly, like how to get home despite not knowing the street names, or how to flip an omelet. In the domain of non-declarative memory, a crucial kind of learning involves motor learning, sometimes also called procedural memory. Learning to drive a car is a good example. At first it is usually arduous and seems to involve explicit attempts to remember what to do next. Eventually it becomes second nature, though, something that a person just kind of knows how to do—and does better and better with time—but that can be hard to explain to som

 JoVE Neuroscience

The Use of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy as a Tool for the Measurement of Bi-hemispheric Transcranial Electric Stimulation Effects on Primary Motor Cortex Metabolism

1Department of Psychology, University of Montréal, 2Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, 3Center for Magnetic Resonance Research and Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota


JoVE 51631

 JoVE Behavior

Morris Water Maze Test: Optimization for Mouse Strain and Testing Environment

1Department of Psychology, Behavioral Neuroscience, West Virginia University, 2Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, West Virginia University, 3Department of Neurology, N. Bud Grossman Center for Memory Research and Care, University of Minnesota, 4Department of Neuroscience, N. Bud Grossman Center for Memory Research and Care, University of Minnesota, 5GRECC, VA Medical Center, 6Center for Neuroscience, Center for Basic and Translational Stroke Research, West Virginia University


JoVE 52706

 JoVE In-Press

Non-invasive Assessment of Changes in Corticomotoneuronal Transmission in Humans

1Department of Medicine, Movement and Sport Science, University of Fribourg (Switzerland), 2Department of Sport Science, University of Freiburg (Germany), 3Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, 4Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 52663

 JoVE In-Press

A Protocol for the Administration of Real-Time FMRI Neurofeedback Training

1Office of the Vice President for Research and Graduate Studies, Wright State University, 2Department of Biomedical, Industrial and Human Factors Engineering, Wright State University, 3Pediatric Radiology and Medical Imaging, Dayton Children's Hospital, 4Department of Trauma Care and Surgery, Boonshoft School of Medicine, Wright State University, 5Department of Defense Hearing Center of Excellence, JBSA-Lackland, 6Department of Neurology, Boonshoft School of Medicine, Wright State University

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 55543

 JoVE Behavior

A Structured Rehabilitation Protocol for Improved Multifunctional Prosthetic Control: A Case Study

1Christian Doppler Laboratory for Restoration of Extremity Function, 2Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, 3Department of Neurorehabilitation Engineering, Bernstein Focus Neurotechnology Göttingen, 4University Medical Center Göttingen, Georg-August University, 5University of Applied Sciences FH Campus Wien, 6Research & Development, Otto Bock Healthcare Products GmbH


JoVE 52968

 JoVE Behavior

Ultrasound Images of the Tongue: A Tutorial for Assessment and Remediation of Speech Sound Errors

1Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Syracuse University, 2Haskins Laboratories, 3Department of Communicative Sciences and Disorders, New York University, 4Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Cincinnati, 5Program in Speech-Language-Hearing Sciences, City University of New York Graduate Center, 6Department of Linguistics, Yale University


JoVE 55123

 JoVE Behavior

Visualization Method for Proprioceptive Drift on a 2D Plane Using Support Vector Machine

1Applied Brain Science Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2Department of Informatics, Graduate School of Informatics and Engineering, The University of Electro-Communications, 3Department of Media and Image Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo Polytechnic University


JoVE 53970

 Science Education: Essentials of Neuropsychology

Anterograde Amnesia

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Jonas T. Kaplan and Sarah I. Gimbel—University of Southern California

Anterograde amnesia is the loss of the ability to form new memories. This can be distinguished from retrograde amnesia, which is the loss of old memories. Anterograde amnesia can result from damage to structures in the brain that are involved in the formation of new memories. Patients who have damage to the structures of the medial temporal lobe, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and the surrounding cortices, often have severe deficits in the formation of certain kinds of memories. These cases can be informative as to how memory is organized in the brain, and how different systems support different kinds of memories. In this video, we will test a patient with medial temporal lobe damage on a series of memory tasks designed to distinguish between different forms of memory. First, we will test short-term or working memory, which is the process we use to keep information in mind temporarily. Next, we will test two different forms of long-term memory: explicit and implicit memory. Explicit memories are conscious and easy to verbalize. For example, memories of facts or episodes from our lives are explicit memories. We can easily tell someone what we ate for breakfast, or what city is the capital of

 JoVE Behavior

Vision Training Methods for Sports Concussion Mitigation and Management

1Neurology and Rehabilitative Medicine, University of Cincinnati, 2Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Cincinnati, 3Department of Athletics, University of Cincinnati, 4Department of Neurosurgery, University of Cincinnati, 5College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services, University of Cincinnati, 6Division of Sports Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center


JoVE 52648

 JoVE In-Press

Fiber Connections of the Supplementary Motor Area Revisited: Methodology of Fiber Dissection, DTI, and Three-Dimensional Documentation

1Department of Neurosurgery, University of Minnesota, 2Department of Neurosurgery, Barrow Neurological Institute, St. Josephs Hospital and Medical Center, 3Department of Radiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 4Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota, 5Department of Neurosurgery, Tepecik Training and Research Hospital, 6Department of Neurosurgery, Cerrahpasa Medical School, University of Istanbul

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JoVE 55681

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