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Mice: The common name for the genus Mus.

Development and Reproduction of the Laboratory Mouse

JoVE 5159

Successful breeding of the laboratory mouse (Mus musculus) is critical to the establishment and maintenance of a productive animal colony. Additionally, mouse embryos are frequently studied to answer questions about developmental processes. A wide variety of genetic tools now exist for regulating gene expression during mouse embryonic and postnatal development, which can help…

 Biology II

Mouse Genotyping

JoVE 5160

Even though the human genome was mapped over 10 years ago, scientists are still far from understanding the function of every human gene! One way to evaluate how a gene functions is to disrupt the sequence encoding it and then evaluate the impact of this change (the phenotype) on the animal’s biology. This approach is commonly used in the mouse (Mus musculus), since it shares a…

 Biology II

Basic Mouse Care and Maintenance

JoVE 5158

Mice (Mus musculus) are small rodents that breed and sexually mature quickly, making them perfectly suited to generating large animal colonies for biological research. As compared to other mammalian species, mice are simple and inexpensive to maintain in the laboratory. Nevertheless, mouse colonies do have specific husbandry needs that are critical to preserving animal health and…

 Biology II

An Introduction to the Laboratory Mouse: Mus musculus

JoVE 5129

Mice (Mus musculus) are an important research tool for modeling human disease progression and development in the lab. Despite differences in their size and appearance, mice share a distinct genetic similarity to humans, and their ability to reproduce and mature quickly make them efficient and economical candidate mammals for scientific study.


This video provides a brief…

 Biology II

Introducing Experimental Agents into the Mouse

JoVE 5161

Many investigations performed in mice (Mus musculus) require the administration of an experimental agent to the animal. For example, it may be of interest to test the efficacy of a specific therapy, to induce a pathologic condition, or to administer anesthesia or palliative care. In order to ensure safe and efficient delivery, it is important to consider a variety of factors prior to…

 Biology II

Micro-CT Imaging of a Mouse Spinal Cord

JoVE 10475

Source: Peiman Shahbeigi-Roodposhti and Sina Shahbazmohamadi, Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut


It's a little-known fact that the discovery and (inadvertent) use of X-rays garnered the first ever Nobel Prize in Physics. The famous X-ray image of Dr.…

 Biomedical Engineering

Evolutionary Relationships- Concept

JoVE 10561

Humans have been attempting to properly classify living things since Aristotle made the first attempt during the 4th century BC. Aristotle’s system was improved upon during the Renaissance and then, subsequently, by Carolus Linnaeus in the mid 1700’s. These more formal classification and organization systems grouped species by their physical similarity to one another. For example,…

 Lab Bio

Basic Care Procedures

JoVE 10290

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN


Mice and rats account for over 90% of the animals used for biomedical research. The proper care of these research animals is critical to the outcome of experiments. There are general procedures that apply to the majority of these mice and…

 Lab Animal Research

In-vitro Mutagenesis

JoVE 10813

To learn more about the function of a gene, researchers can observe what happens when the gene is inactivated or “knocked out,” by creating genetically engineered knockout animals. Knockout mice have been particularly useful as models for human diseases such as cancer, Parkinson’s disease, and diabetes.

Genes can be randomly knocked out, or specific genes can be targeted. To knock out a particular gene, an engineered piece of DNA called a targeting vector is used to replace the normal gene, thereby inactivating it. Targeting vectors have sequences on each end that are identical—or homologous— to the sequences flanking each side of the gene of interest. These homologous sequences allow the targeting vector to replace the gene through homologous recombination—a process that occurs naturally between DNA with similar sequences during meiosis. The targeting vector is introduced into mouse embryonic stem cells in culture, using methods such as electroporation—use of electric pulses to temporarily create pores in the cell membrane. Typically, to identify cells where the vector has properly replaced the gene, it is designed to include a positive selection marker—such as the gene for neomycin resistance (NeoR)—between the homologous regions; and a negative selection marker—such as th

 Core: Biotechnology

Gastrulation

JoVE 10909

Gastrulation establishes the three primary tissues of an embryo: the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. This developmental process relies on a series of intricate cellular movements, which in humans transforms a flat, “bilaminar disc” composed of two cell sheets into a three-tiered structure. In the resulting embryo, the endoderm serves as the bottom layer, and stacked directly above it is the intermediate mesoderm, and then the uppermost ectoderm. Respectively, these tissue strata will form components of the gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal and nervous systems, among other derivatives. Depending on the species, gastrulation is achieved in different ways. For example, early mouse embryos are uniquely shaped and appear as “funnels” rather than flat discs. Gastrulation thus produces a conical embryo, arranged with an inner ectoderm layer, outer endoderm, and the mesoderm sandwiched in between (similar to the layers of a sundae cone). Due to this distinct morphological feature of mice, some researchers study other models, like rabbit or chicken—both of which develop as flat structures—to gain insights into human development. One of the main morphological features of avian and mammalian gastrulation is the primitive streak, a groove that appears down the vertical center of the embryo, and through which cells migrate t

 Core: Reproduction and Development

Combined SPECT and CT Imaging to Visualize Cardiac Functionality

JoVE 10396

Source: Alycia G. Berman, James A. Schaber, and Craig J. Goergen, Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana


Here we will demonstrate the fundamentals of single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging using mice. The technique involves injecting a…

 Biomedical Engineering

Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging

JoVE 10393

Source: Frederick W. Damen and Craig J. Goergen, Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana


In this video, high field, small-bore magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with physiological monitoring is demonstrated to acquire gated cine loops of the murine cardiovascular system. This…

 Biomedical Engineering

Fundamentals of Breeding and Weaning

JoVE 10293

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN


Millions of mice and rats are bred for use in biomedical research each year. Worldwide, there are several large commercial breeding facilities that supply mice to research laboratories, but many facilities choose to also breed mice and…

 Lab Animal Research

Compound Administration I

JoVE 10198

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN


As many research protocols require that a substance be injected into an animal, the route of delivery and the amount of the substance must be accurately determined. There are several routes of administration available in the mouse and rat. …

 Lab Animal Research

Imaging Biological Samples with Optical and Confocal Microscopy

JoVE 10476

Source: Peiman Shahbeigi-Roodposhti and Sina Shahbazmohamadi, Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut


Optical microscopes have been around for centuries, and while they reached their theoretical limitation of resolution decades ago, new equipment and techniques, such as confocal…

 Biomedical Engineering

Tissue Regeneration with Somatic Stem Cells

JoVE 5339

Somatic or adult stem cells, like embryonic stem cells, are capable of self-renewal but demonstrate a restricted differentiation potential. Nonetheless, these cells are crucial to homeostatic processes and play an important role in tissue repair. By studying and manipulating this cell population, scientist may be able to develop new regenerative therapies for injuries and diseases.


 Developmental Biology

Murine In Utero Electroporation

JoVE 5208

In utero electroporation is an important technique for studying the molecular mechanisms that guide the proliferation, differentiation, migration, and maturation of cells during neural development. Electroporation enables the rapid and targeted delivery of material into cells by utilizing electrical pulses to create transient pores in cell membranes. Although…

 Neuroscience

Induced Pluripotency

JoVE 5333

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are somatic cells that have been genetically reprogrammed to form undifferentiated stem cells. Like embryonic stem cells, iPSCs can be grown in culture conditions that promote differentiation into different cell types. Thus, iPSCs may provide a potentially unlimited source of any human cell type, which is a major breakthrough in the field of regenerative…

 Developmental Biology

Explant Culture of Neural Tissue

JoVE 5209

The intricate structure of the vertebrate nervous system arises from a complex series of events involving cell differentiation, cell migration, and changes in cell morphology. Studying these processes is essential to our understanding of nervous system function as well as our ability to diagnose and treat disorders that result from abnormal development. However, neural…

 Neuroscience

What is Genetic Engineering?

JoVE 10806

Genetic engineering is the process of modifying an organism’s DNA to introduce new, desirable traits. Many organisms, from bacteria to plants and animals, have been genetically modified for academic, medical, agricultural, and industrial purposes. While genetic engineering has definite benefits, ethical concerns surround modifying humans and our food supply.

Genetic engineering is possible because the genetic code—the way information is encoded by DNA—and the structure of DNA are universal among all life forms. As a result, an organism’s genetic code may be modified in several ways. The nucleotide sequence may be selectively edited by using techniques such as the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Known as the "molecular scissors," the CRISPR/Cas9 system is an innate, prokaryotic immune response that has been co-opted for editing genetic information. A gene may also be removed from an organism to create a “knockout,” or introduced to create a “knockin,” through a process called gene targeting. This method relies on homologous recombination—genetic exchange between DNA molecules that share an extended region with similar sequences—to modify an endogenous gene. Scientists can also insert a gene from one organism into the genome of another, resulting in a transgenic organism. Generally, DNA

 Core: Biotechnology

Bacterial Transformation- Concept

JoVE 10573

Background

In early 20th century, pneumonia was accountable for a large portion of infectious disease deaths1. In order to develop an effective vaccine against pneumonia, Frederick Griffith set out to study two different strains of the Streptococcus pneumoniae: a non-virulent strain with a rough appearance (R-strain) and a virulent strain with a smooth appearance…

 Lab Bio

Co-Immunoprecipitation and Pull-Down Assays

JoVE 5695

Co-immunoprecipitation (CoIP) and pull-down assays are closely related methods to identify stable protein-protein interactions. These methods are related to immunoprecipitation, a method for separating a target protein bound to an antibody from unbound proteins. In CoIP, an antibody-bound protein is itself bound to another protein that does not bind with the antibody, this is followed by a…

 Biochemistry

Blood Withdrawal I

JoVE 10246

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN


Blood collection is a common requirement for research studies that involve mice and rats. The method of blood withdrawal in mice and rats is dependent upon the volume of blood needed, the frequency of the sampling, the health status of the …

 Lab Animal Research

Blood Withdrawal II

JoVE 10247

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN


The collection of blood from mice and rats for analysis can be done through a variety of methods. Each method of collection has variations in the type of restraint required, the invasiveness of the procedure, and the necessity of a general …

 Lab Animal Research

Anesthesia Induction and Maintenance

JoVE 10263

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN


The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals ("The Guide") states that pain assessment and alleviation are integral components of the veterinary care of laboratory animals.1 The definition of anesthesia is the loss …

 Lab Animal Research

Biodistribution of Nano-drug Carriers: Applications of SEM

JoVE 10472

Source: Peiman Shahbeigi-Roodposhti and Sina Shahbazmohamadi, Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut


Nanoparticles have been increasingly used research towards targeted drug delivery and controlled drug release. While most of these particles have been developed as polymeric…

 Biomedical Engineering

Rodent Handling and Restraint Techniques

JoVE 10221

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN 


It has been demonstrated that even minimal handling of mice and rats is stressful to the animals. Handling for cage changing and other noninvasive procedures causes an increase in heart rate, blood pressure, and other physiological…

 Lab Animal Research

Compound Administration IV

JoVE 10214

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN


There are many commonly used routes for compound administration in laboratory mice and rats. Protocols may, however, require the use of the less commonly used routes: intracardiac, footpad, and retro-orbital injections. Specialized…

 Lab Animal Research

High-frequency Ultrasound Imaging of the Abdominal Aorta

JoVE 10397

Source: Amelia R. Adelsperger, Evan H. Phillips, and Craig J. Goergen, Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana


High-frequency ultrasound systems are used to acquire high resolution images. Here, the use of a state-of-the-art system will be demonstrated to image the morphology and …

 Biomedical Engineering

Fear Conditioning

JoVE 5417

Fear Conditioning is a type of learning in which an association is established between a negative unpleasant event and a harmless stimulus. This leads to a fear of the harmless stimulus. This process is largely mediated by the amygdala, which is a brain region involved in emotions and stress reactions. Fear conditioning can be utilized in several ways to understand different aspects of…

 Behavioral Science

Compound Administration III

JoVE 10215

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN


There are many commonly used routes for compound administration in laboratory mice and rats. However, certain protocols may require the use of less commonly used routes, including intradermal, intranasal, and intracranial injections.…

 Lab Animal Research

Rodent Identification II

JoVE 10182

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN


Animal records must be accurately maintained to ensure that data collection is correct. Records range from maintaining information on cage cards to having a detailed database with all of the relevant information on each animal. The primary …

 Lab Animal Research

Photoacoustic Tomography to Image Blood and Lipids in the Infrarenal Aorta

JoVE 10395

Source: Gurneet S. Sangha and Craig J. Goergen, Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana


Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is an emerging biomedical imaging modality that utilizes light generated acoustic waves to obtain compositional information from tissue. PAT can be used to image …

 Biomedical Engineering

An Introduction to Learning and Memory

JoVE 5416

Learning is the process of acquiring new information and memory is the retention or storage of that information. Different types of learning, such as non-associative and associative learning, and different types of memory, such as long-term and short-term memory, have been associated with human behaviors. Studying these components in detail helps behavioral scientists understand the neural…

 Behavioral Science

An Introduction to Stem Cell Biology

JoVE 5331

Cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types, known as stem cells, are at the center of one of the most exciting fields of science today. Stem cell biologists are working to understand the basic mechanisms that regulate how these cells function. These researchers are also interested in harnessing the remarkable potential of stem cells to treat human diseases.


Here,…

 Developmental Biology

Near-infrared Fluorescence Imaging of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

JoVE 10394

Source: Arvin H. Soepriatna1, Kelsey A. Bullens2, and Craig J. Goergen1


1 Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana


2 Department of Biochemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana


Near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging…

 Biomedical Engineering

Rodent Identification I

JoVE 10189

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN


A fundamental requirement of biomedical research is the proper identification of research animals. It is essential that the right animal is utilized for procedures and data collection. Laboratory mice and rats can be identified with the…

 Lab Animal Research

Children's Reliance on Artist Intentions When Identifying Pictures

JoVE 10117

Source: Laboratories of Judith Danovitch and Nicholaus Noles—University of Louisville


Children are not the best artists. Sometimes it’s easy to pick out the characteristic triangular head, whiskers, and tail of a cat, but children often describe elaborate scenarios that they depict as a beautifully unrecognizable mess. Thus,…

 Developmental Psychology

Genetic Engineering of Model Organisms

JoVE 5327

Transgenesis, or the use of genetic engineering to alter gene expression, is widely used in the field of developmental biology. Scientists use a number of approaches to alter the function of genes to understand their roles in developmental processes. This includes replacement of a gene with a nonfunctional copy, or adding a visualizable tag to a gene that allows the resultant fusion protein to …

 Developmental Biology

Compound Administration II

JoVE 10388

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN



Compound administration is often an integral component of an animal study. Many factors need to be evaluated to ensure that the compound is delivered correctly. The route of administration affects the mechanisms of…

 Lab Animal Research

Quantitative Strain Mapping of an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

JoVE 10480

Source: Hannah L. Cebull1, Arvin H. Soepriatna1, John J. Boyle2 and Craig J. Goergen1


1Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana


2Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, St Louis, Missouri


 Biomedical Engineering

Sterile Tissue Harvest

JoVE 10298

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN


In 1959 The 3 R's were introduced by W.M.S. Russell and R.L. Burch in their book The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. The 3 R's are replacement, reduction, and refinement of the use of animals in research.1 The …

 Lab Animal Research

An Overview of Genetic Engineering

JoVE 5552

Genetic engineering – the process of purposefully altering an organism’s DNA – has been used to create powerful research tools and model organisms, and has also seen many agricultural applications. However, in order to engineer traits to tackle complex agricultural problems such as stress tolerance, or to realize the promise of gene therapy for treating…

 Genetics

Anxiety Testing

JoVE 5430

Anxiety is a commonly observed behavioral disorder that stems from fear. It is described as increased restlessness, or unpleasant feelings of fear over anticipated events. Experimenters often use rodent models to better understand anxiety disorders in humans. They use different paradigms, like exposing rodents to bright spaces or loud sounds, which are known to induce fear. These tests…

 Behavioral Science

Balance and Coordination Testing

JoVE 5423

Balance and coordination are critical components involved in the control of movement. Many sensory receptors and neural processing units are required to help individuals maintain balance while performing various activities. Deficits in balance and coordination occur in patients suffering from movement disorders or due to aging. Therefore, scientists are trying to understand the…

 Behavioral Science

Fate Mapping

JoVE 5335

Fate mapping is a technique used to understand how embryonic cells divide, differentiate, and migrate during development. In classic fate mapping experiments, cells in different areas of an embryo are labeled with a chemical dye and then tracked to determine which tissues or structures they form. Technological improvements now allow for individual cells to be marked and traced throughout…

 Developmental Biology

Cleavage and Blastulation

JoVE 10908

After a large-single-celled zygote is produced via fertilization, the process of cleavage occurs while zygotes travel through the uterine tube. Cleavage is a mitotic cell division that does not result in growth. With each round of successive cell division, daughter cells get increasingly smaller.

At the beginning of embryogenesis, maternal mRNAs control development. However, by the eight-cell stage of cleavage, embryonic genes become activated in a process called zygotic genome activation (ZGA). As a result, maternal mRNAs get degraded, and ZGA causes a transition from maternal to zygotic genetic control of developing an embryo. Although maternal mRNAs get degraded, previously translated proteins may remain in the embryo through later stages of development. Cleavage patterns vary between organisms depending on the presence and distribution of egg yolk amongst other factors. For example, mammals have a holoblastic rotational cleavage pattern. They are holoblastic because they have sparse, but evenly distributed yolk and therefore end up with a cleavage furrow that extends through the entire embryo as opposed to being meroblastic where the cleavage furrow does not extend through the yolk-dense portion of the cytoplasm. At the onset of cleavage, rotational cleavage begins when the zygote first divides to form two smaller daughter cells called blas

 Core: Reproduction and Development

Visualization of Knee Joint Degeneration after Non-invasive ACL Injury in Rats

JoVE 10477

Source: Lindsey K. Lepley1,2, Steven M. Davi1, Timothy A. Butterfield3,4 and Sina Shahbazmohamadi5,


1Department of Kinesiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT; 2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT; 3Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Kentucky,…

 Biomedical Engineering

Executive Function in Autism Spectrum Disorder

JoVE 10268

Source: Laboratories of Jonas T. Kaplan and Sarah I. Gimbel—University of Southern California


Attention, working-memory, planning, impulse control, inhibition, and mental flexibility are important components of human cognition that are often referred to as executive functions. Autism spectrum disorder is a developmental disorder that …

 Neuropsychology

The Precision of Visual Working Memory with Delayed Estimation

JoVE 10020

Source: Laboratory of Jonathan Flombaum—Johns Hopkins University



Human memory is limited. Throughout most of its history, experimental psychology has focused on investigating the discrete, quantitative limits of memory—how many individual pieces of information a person can remember. Recently,…

 Cognitive Psychology
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