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Multiple Sclerosis: An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see Multiple sclerosis, Relapsing-remitting), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see Multiple sclerosis, Chronic progressive) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)

The Multiple Sclerosis Performance Test (MSPT): An iPad-Based Disability Assessment Tool

1Mellen Center for Multiple Sclerosis Treatment and Research, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 2Center for Brain Health, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 3Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation

JoVE 51318


 Medicine

Adapted Resistance Training Improves Strength in Eight Weeks in Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis

1Motion Analysis Laboratory, Kennedy Krieger Institute, 2Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 3Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 4Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

JoVE 53449


 Medicine

A Protocol for the Use of Remotely-Supervised Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

1Multiple Sclerosis Comprehensive Care Center, Department of Neurology, NYU Langone Medical Center, 2Department of Neurology, Stony Brook Medicine, 3Soterix Medical, Inc, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York

JoVE 53542


 Medicine

Determining Immune System Suppression versus CNS Protection for Pharmacological Interventions in Autoimmune Demyelination

1Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 2Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 3Department of Neurobiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 4Center for Glial Biology and Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham

JoVE 54348


 Immunology and Infection

Antibody Binding Specificity for Kappa (Vκ) Light Chain-containing Human (IgM) Antibodies: Polysialic Acid (PSA) Attached to NCAM as a Case Study

1Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, 2Mayo Clinic Center for Multiple Sclerosis and Autoimmune Neurology, Mayo Clinic, 3Center for Regenerative Medicine, Neuroregeneration, Mayo Clinic, 4Division of Neonatal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 5Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Mayo Clinic

JoVE 54139


 Immunology and Infection

Using Retinal Imaging to Study Dementia

1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2Department of Medicine & Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 3Therese Pei Fong Chow Research Centre for Prevention of Dementia, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 4Gerald Choa Neuroscience Centre, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 5Memory Aging and Cognition Centre, National University Health System, 6Department of Pharmacology, National University of Singapore, 7Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, 8Duke-NUS Medical School, National University of Singapore

JoVE 56137


 Medicine

Two-photon Imaging of Cellular Dynamics in the Mouse Spinal Cord

1Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine, 2Physiology and Biophysics, University of California, Irvine, 3Neurobiology and Behavior, University of California, Irvine, 4University of California San Francisco Diabetes Center, University of California, San Francisco, 5Pathology, University of Utah

JoVE 52580


 Neuroscience

Induction of Paralysis and Visual System Injury in Mice by T Cells Specific for Neuromyelitis Optica Autoantigen Aquaporin-4

1Department of Neurology, University of California, 2Program in Immunology, University of California, 3Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, 4Department of Pathology, Stanford University

JoVE 56185


 Immunology and Infection

Characterizing Multiscale Mechanical Properties of Brain Tissue Using Atomic Force Microscopy, Impact Indentation, and Rheometry

1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 4Department of Neurology, The F.M. Kirby Neurobiology Center, Boston Children’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School

JoVE 54201


 Neuroscience

Utilizing 3D Printing Technology to Merge MRI with Histology: A Protocol for Brain Sectioning

1Translational Neuroradiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 2Cerebral Microcirculation Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 3Viral Immunology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

JoVE 54780


 Neuroscience

A Protocol for Comprehensive Assessment of Bulbar Dysfunction in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

1Department of Speech-Language Pathology, University of Toronto, 2ALS/ MN Clinic, Sunnybrook Health Science Centre, 3Department of Special Education and Communication Disorders, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 4Department of Neurology, Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 5Department of Neurology, University of Toronto

JoVE 2422


 Medicine

Cranial Nerves Exam I (I-VI)

JoVE 10091

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

During each section of the neurological testing, the examiner uses the powers of observation to assess the patient. In some cases, cranial nerve dysfunction is readily apparent: a patient might mention a characteristic chief complaint (such as loss of smell or diplopia), or a visually evident physical sign of cranial nerve involvement, such as in facial nerve palsy. However, in many cases a patient's history doesn't directly suggest cranial nerve pathologies, as some of them (such as sixth nerve palsy) may have subtle manifestations and can only be uncovered by a careful neurological exam. Importantly, a variety of pathological conditions that are associated with alterations in mental status (such as some neurodegenerative disorders or brain lesions) can also cause cranial nerve dysfunction; therefore, any abnormal findings during a mental status exam should prompt a careful and complete neurological exam. The cranial nerve examination is applied neuroanatomy. The cranial nerves are symmetrical; therefore, while performing the examination, the examiner should compare each side to the other. A physician should approach the examination in a


 Physical Examinations III

Cranial Nerves Exam II (VII-XII)

JoVE 10005

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

The cranial nerve examination follows the mental status evaluation in a neurological exam. However, the examination begins with observations made upon greeting the patient. For example, weakness of the facial muscles (which are innervated by cranial nerve VII) can be readily apparent during the first encounter with the patient. Cranial nerve VII (the facial nerve) also has sensory branches, which innervate the taste buds on the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and the medial aspect of the external auditory canal. Therefore, finding ipsilateral taste dysfunction in a patient with facial weakness confirms the involvement of cranial nerve VII. In addition, knowledge of the neuroanatomy helps the clinician to localize the level of the lesion: unilateral weakness of the lower facial muscles suggests a supranuclear lesion on the opposite side, while lesions involving the nuclear or infranuclear portion of the facial nerve manifest with an ipsilateral paralysis of all the facial muscles on the involved side. Cranial nerve VIII (the acoustic nerve) has two divisions: the hearing (cochlear) division and the vestibular division, which innervates the semi


 Physical Examinations III

Detecting Glycogen in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells with Periodic Acid Schiff Staining

1Department of Biology, Centre for Structural and Functional Genomics, PERFORM Centre, Concordia University, 2Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Centre for Structural and Functional Genomics, PERFORM Centre, Concordia University, 3Department of Exercise Science, Centre for Structural and Functional Genomics, PERFORM Centre, Concordia University

JoVE 52199


 Immunology and Infection

An In Vivo Duo-color Method for Imaging Vascular Dynamics Following Contusive Spinal Cord Injury

1Spinal Cord and Brain Injury Research Group, Stark Neurosciences Research Institute, and Department of Neurological Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, 2Program in Medical Neuroscience, Stark Neurosciences Research Institute, Indiana University School of Medicine, 3Norton Neuroscience Institute, Norton Healthcare, 4Department of Human Anatomy & Histoembryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Fudan University, 5Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Louisville School of Medicine

JoVE 56565


 Neuroscience

Development and Validation of an Ultrasensitive Single Molecule Array Digital Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Human Interferon-α

1Immunobiology of Dendritic Cells, Institut Pasteur, 2INSERM U1223, 3Laboratory of Neurogenetics and Neuroinflammation, INSERM UMR1163, Institut Imagine, 4MRC Human Genetics Unit, MRC Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, 5Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine, University of Manchester

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JoVE 57421


 JoVE In-Press

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