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Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.

Motor Exam II

JoVE 10095

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

There are two main types of reflexes that are tested on a neurological examination: stretch (or deep tendon reflexes) and superficial reflexes. A deep tendon reflex (DTR) results from the stimulation of a stretch-sensitive afferent from a neuromuscular spindle, which, via a single synapse, stimulates a motor nerve leading to a muscle contraction. DTRs are increased in chronic upper motor neuron lesions (lesions of the pyramidal tract) and decreased in lower motor neuron lesions and nerve and muscle disorders. There is a wide variation of responses and reflexes graded from 0 to 4+ (Table 1). DTRs are commonly tested to help localize neurologic disorders. A common method of recording findings during the DTR examination is using a stick figure diagram. The DTR test can help distinguish upper and lower motor neuron problems, and can assist in localizing nerve root compression as well. Although the DTR of nearly any skeletal muscle could be tested, the reflexes that are routinely tested are: brachioradialis, biceps, triceps, patellar, and Achilles (Table 2). Superficial reflexes are segmental ref


 Physical Examinations III

Isometric and Eccentric Force Generation Assessment of Skeletal Muscles Isolated from Murine Models of Muscular Dystrophies

1Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 2Department of Physiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of Dental Medicine, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pennsylvania

JoVE 50036


 Biology

Creating a Structurally Realistic Finite Element Geometric Model of a Cardiomyocyte to Study the Role of Cellular Architecture in Cardiomyocyte Systems Biology

1Cell Structure and Mechanobiology Group, University of Melbourne, 2Systems Biology Laboratory, Melbourne School of Engineering, University of Melbourne, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Melbourne, 4School of Mathematics and Statistics, Faculty of Science, University of Melbourne, 5Department of Engineering Science, University of Auckland, 6Advanced Microscopy Facility, Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, University of Melbourne, 7ARC Centre of Excellence in Convergent Bio-Nano Science and Technology, University of Melbourne, 8School of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, 9Living Systems Institute, University of Exeter

JoVE 56817


 Bioengineering

Paradigms of Lower Extremity Electrical Stimulation Training After Spinal Cord Injury

1Spinal Cord Injury and Disorders Service, Hunter Holmes McGuire VAMC, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Virginia Commonwealth University, 3Deceased, Department of Kinesiology, The University of Georgia, 4Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center

JoVE 57000


 Behavior

Murine Spinotrapezius Model to Assess the Impact of Arteriolar Ligation on Microvascular Function and Remodeling

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Virginia, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, California Polytechnic State University, 3Office of Animal Welfare, University of Virginia, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering & Institute for Computational Medicine, Johns Hopkins University

JoVE 50218


 Medicine

High Efficiency Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells to Cardiomyocytes and Characterization by Flow Cytometry

1Department of Biochemistry, Medical College of Wisconsin, 2Stanford Cardiovascular Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, 3Department of Anesthesiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 4Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Consortium, LKS Faculty of Medicine, Hong Kong University, 5Division of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 6Cardiovascular Research Center, Biotechnology and Bioengineering Center, Medical College of Wisconsin

JoVE 52010


 Biology

The Neuromuscular Junction: Measuring Synapse Size, Fragmentation and Changes in Synaptic Protein Density Using Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy

1Physiology and Bosch Institute, University of Sydney, 2Motor Neuron Disease Research Group, Australian School of Advanced Medicine, Macquarie University, 3Advanced Microscopy Facility, Bosch Institute, University of Sydney

JoVE 52220


 Neuroscience

A Multimodal Imaging- and Stimulation-based Method of Evaluating Connectivity-related Brain Excitability in Patients with Epilepsy

1Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 3Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 4Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 5Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital

JoVE 53727


 Medicine

Online Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Protocol for Measuring Cortical Physiology Associated with Response Inhibition

1College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, 2Division of Neurology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3Division of Psychiatry, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 4Center for Neurodevelopmental and Imaging Research, Kennedy Krieger Institute

JoVE 56789


 Neuroscience

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