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Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
 JoVE Medicine

Calcification of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells and Imaging of Aortic Calcification and Inflammation

1Anesthesia Center for Critical Care Research of the Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care, and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 2Cardiovascular Research Center and Cardiology Division of the Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 3Cardiovascular Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 4Harvard Medical School, 5Department of Anesthesiology, Uniklinik RWTH Aachen, RWTH Aachen University, 6Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Diseases and the Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Immunology of the Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital


JoVE 54017

 JoVE In-Press

Murine Aortic Crush Injury - an Efficient In Vivo Model of Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Endothelial Function

1Department of Surgery, Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 2Department of Surgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 3Department of Physiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 4Center for Vascular and Inflammatory Diseases, University of Maryland School of Medicine

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 55201

 JoVE In-Press

Extraction and Purification of Polyphenols from Freeze-Dried Berry Powder for the Treatment of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells In Vitro

1Department of Dietetics and Nutrition, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 2Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences, Florida State University, 3Center for Advancing Exercise and Nutrition Research on Aging (CAENRA), Florida State University

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 55605

 JoVE Bioengineering

Adapting the Electrospinning Process to Provide Three Unique Environments for a Tri-layered In Vitro Model of the Airway Wall

1Division of Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering, University of Nottingham, 2Laboratory of Biophysics and Surface Analysis, School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, 3Division of Immunology and Allergy, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, University of Nottingham, 4Division of Respiratory Medicine, School of Clinical Sciences, University of Nottingham, 5NIHR Respiratory Biomedical Research Unit, University of Leicester, 6School of Sport, Exercise, and Health Sciences, Loughborough University


JoVE 52986

 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations III

Motor Exam II

JoVE Science Education

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

There are two main types of reflexes that are tested on a neurological examination: stretch (or deep tendon reflexes) and superficial reflexes. A deep tendon reflex (DTR) results from the stimulation of a stretch-sensitive afferent from a neuromuscular spindle, which, via a single synapse, stimulates a motor nerve leading to a muscle contraction. DTRs are increased in chronic upper motor neuron lesions (lesions of the pyramidal tract) and decreased in lower motor neuron lesions and nerve and muscle disorders. There is a wide variation of responses and reflexes graded from 0 to 4+ (Table 1). DTRs are commonly tested to help localize neurologic disorders. A common method of recording findings during the DTR examination is using a stick figure diagram. The DTR test can help distinguish upper and lower motor neuron problems, and can assist in localizing nerve root compression as well. Although the DTR of nearly any skeletal muscle could be tested, the reflexes that are routinely tested are: brachioradialis, biceps, triceps, patellar, and Achilles (Table 2). Superficial reflexes are segmental ref

 JoVE In-Press

Optimized Protocol for the Extraction of Proteins from the Human Mitral Valve

1Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, 2Cardiovascular Tissue Bank of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, 3Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Cardiovascular Section, University of Milan, 4Department of Cardiovascular Disease, Development and Innovation Cardiac Surgery Unit, IRCCS Centro Cardiologico Monzino

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 55762

 Science Education: Essentials of Lab Animal Research

Diagnostic Necropsy and Tissue Harvest

JoVE Science Education

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

Many animal experiments rely on final data collection time points that are gathered from the harvesting and testing of organs and tissues. The use of appropriate methods for the collection of organs and tissues can impact the quality of the samples and the analysis of the data that is gleaned for the testing of the tissues. The method of euthanasia of the animal can also impact the quality of the samples. This manuscript will outline proper necropsy techniques for rats.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Engineering 3D Cellularized Collagen Gels for Vascular Tissue Regeneration

1Laboratory for Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Department Min-Met-Materials Eng & CHU de Québec Research Center, Canada Research Chair I for the Innovation in Surgery, Laval University, 2NSERC CREATE Program for Regenerative Medicine (NCPRM), Laval University, 3Department Electronics, Information and Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano, 4Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, 5National Institute for Nanotechnology, National Research Council (Canada), 6Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, University of Western Ontario


JoVE 52812

 JoVE Biology

Assessment of Calcium Sparks in Intact Skeletal Muscle Fibers

1Department of Surgery, Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 2Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 3Department of Molecular Biophysics and Physiology, Rush University Medical Center, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center


JoVE 50898

 JoVE Biology

High Efficiency Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells to Cardiomyocytes and Characterization by Flow Cytometry

1Department of Biochemistry, Medical College of Wisconsin, 2Stanford Cardiovascular Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, 3Department of Anesthesiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 4Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Consortium, LKS Faculty of Medicine, Hong Kong University, 5Division of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 6Cardiovascular Research Center, Biotechnology and Bioengineering Center, Medical College of Wisconsin


JoVE 52010

 JoVE Medicine

Murine Spinotrapezius Model to Assess the Impact of Arteriolar Ligation on Microvascular Function and Remodeling

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Virginia, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, California Polytechnic State University, 3Office of Animal Welfare, University of Virginia, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering & Institute for Computational Medicine, Johns Hopkins University


JoVE 50218

 JoVE Biology

Manual Isolation of Adipose-derived Stem Cells from Human Lipoaspirates

1Cytori Therapeutics Inc, 2Division of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 3Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 4Department of Orthopedic Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 5Regenerative Bioengineering and Repair Laboratory, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA


JoVE 50585

 JoVE Neuroscience

Purification of Mouse Brain Vessels

1Collège de France, Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Biology (CIRB), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique CNRS, Unité Mixte de Recherche 7241, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, 2Centre Interdisciplinaire de Recherche en Biologie, 3MEMOLIFE Laboratory of Excellence and Paris Science, Lettre Research University, 4Université Paris Descartes, Faculté de Pharmacie, Université Paris Diderot


JoVE 53208

 JoVE Bioengineering

A Novel Stretching Platform for Applications in Cell and Tissue Mechanobiology

1Centre for Interdisciplinary NanoPhysics, Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 2University of Ottawa Heart Institue, University of Ottawa, 3Libin Cardiovascular Institute of Alberta, University of Calgary, 4Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 5Institute for Science, Society and Policy, University of Ottawa


JoVE 51454

 JoVE Bioengineering

Measurement of Maximum Isometric Force Generated by Permeabilized Skeletal Muscle Fibers

1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Michigan Medical School, 2Department of Molecular & Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan Medical School, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan Medical School, 4Department of Surgery, Section of Plastic Surgery, University of Michigan Medical School


JoVE 52695

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