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Myocardial Infarction: Necrosis of the Myocardium caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (Coronary circulation).

Combined SPECT and CT Imaging to Visualize Cardiac Functionality

JoVE 10396

Source: Alycia G. Berman, James A. Schaber, and Craig J. Goergen, Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

Here we will demonstrate the fundamentals of single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging using mice. The technique involves injecting a radionuclide into a mouse, imaging the animal after it is distributed throughout the body, and then reconstructing the produced images to create a volumetric dataset. This can provide information about anatomy, physiology, and metabolism to improve disease diagnosis and monitor its progression. In terms of collected data, SPECT/CT provides similar information as positron emission tomography (PET)/CT. However, the underlying principles of these two techniques are fundamentally different since PET requires the detection of two gamma photons, which are emitted in opposite directions. In contrast, SPECT imaging directly measures radiation via a gamma camera. As a result, SPECT imaging has lower spatial resolution than PET. However, it is also less expensive because the SPECT radioactive isotopes are more readily available. SPECT/CT imaging provides both noninvasive metabolic and anatomical information that can be useful for a wide variety of applications.


 Biomedical Engineering

Pericardiocentesis

JoVE 10236

Source: Rachel Liu, BAO, MBBCh, Emergency Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

The heart lies within the pericardium, a relatively inelastic fibrous sac. The pericardium has some compliance to stretch when fluid is slowly introduced into the pericardial space. However, rapid accumulation overwhelms pericardial ability to accommodate extra fluid. Once a critical volume is reached, intrapericardial pressure increases dramatically, compressing the right ventricle and eventually impeding the volume that enters the left ventricle. When these chambers cannot fill in diastole, stroke volume and cardiac output are diminished, leading to cardiac tamponade, a life-threatening compression of the cardiac chambers by a pericardial effusion. Unless the pressure is relieved by aspiration of pericardial fluid (pericardiocentesis), cardiac arrest is imminent. Cardiac tamponadeis a critical emergency that can carry high morbidity and mortality. Patients may present in extremis, without much time to make the diagnosis and perform life-saving treatments. Causes of this condition are broken into traumatic and non-traumatic categories, with different treatment algorithms. Stab and gunshot wounds are the primary cause of traumatic tamponade, but it may occur from blunt trauma associated with


 Emergency Medicine and Critical Care

High-frequency High-resolution Echocardiography: First Evidence on Non-invasive Repeated Measure of Myocardial Strain, Contractility, and Mitral Regurgitation in the Ischemia-reperfused Murine Heart

1Department of Surgery, The Ohio State University, 2Heart and Lung Research Institute, The Ohio State University, 3Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Ohio State University

JoVE 1781


 Medicine

Photoacoustic Tomography to Image Blood and Lipids in the Infrarenal Aorta

JoVE 10395

Source: Gurneet S. Sangha and Craig J. Goergen, Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is an emerging biomedical imaging modality that utilizes light generated acoustic waves to obtain compositional information from tissue. PAT can be used to image blood and lipid components, which is useful for a wide variety of applications, including cardiovascular and tumor imaging. Currently used imaging techniques have inherent limitations that restrict their use with researchers and physicians. For example, long acquisition times, high costs, use of harmful contrast, and minimal to high invasiveness are all factors that limit the use of various modalities in the laboratory and clinic. Currently, the only comparable imaging techniques to PAT are emerging optical techniques. But these also have disadvantages, such as limited depth of penetration and the need for exogenous contrast agents. PAT provides meaningful information in a rapid, noninvasive, label-free manner. When coupled with ultrasound, PAT can be used to obtain structural, hemodynamic, and compositional information from tissue, thereby complementing currently used imaging techniques. The advantages of PAT illustrate its capabilities to make an impact in both the preclinical and clinical


 Biomedical Engineering

Cardiac Exam I: Inspection and Palpation

JoVE 10071

Source: Suneel Dhand, MD, Attending Physician, Internal Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

The cardiac assessment is one of the core examinations performed by almost every physician whenever encountering a patient. Disorders of the cardiac system are among the most common reasons for hospital admission, with conditions ranging from myocardial infarction to congestive heart failure. Learning a complete and thorough cardiac examination is therefore crucial for any practicing physician. If there is pathology in the heart or circulatory system, the consequences can also be manifested in other bodily areas, including the lungs, abdomen, and legs. Many physicians instinctively reach straight for their stethoscopes when performing cardiac exams. However, a large amount of information is gained before auscultation by going through the correct sequence of examination, starting with inspection and palpation.


 Physical Examinations I

Construction of Defined Human Engineered Cardiac Tissues to Study Mechanisms of Cardiac Cell Therapy

1Cardiovascular Research Center, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 2The Mindich Child Health and Development Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 3Stem Cell & Regenerative Medicine Consortium, LKS Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong

JoVE 53447


 Bioengineering

Ferric Chloride-induced Canine Carotid Artery Thrombosis: A Large Animal Model of Vascular Injury

1Department of Neurological Surgery, Ohio State University, 2Department of Surgery, Ohio State University, 3Department of Surgery, Duke University, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Ohio State University

JoVE 57981


 Medicine

Near-infrared Fluorescence Imaging of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

JoVE 10394

Source: Arvin H. Soepriatna1, Kelsey A. Bullens2, and Craig J. Goergen1

1 Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

2 Department of Biochemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana Near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging is an exciting optical technique that utilizes fluorescent probes to visualize complex biomolecular assemblies in tissues. NIRF imaging has many advantages over conventional imaging methods for noninvasive imaging of diseases. Unlike single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), NIRF imaging is rapid, high-throughput, and does not involve ionizing radiation. Furthermore, recent developments in engineering target-specific and activatable fluorescent probes provide NIRF with high specificity and sensitivity, making it an attractive modality in studying cancer and cardiovascular disease. The presented procedure is designed to demonstrate the principles behind NIRF imaging and how to conduct in vivo and ex vivo experiments in small animals to study a variety of diseases. The specific example shown here employs an activatab


 Biomedical Engineering

Percutaneous Contrast Echocardiography-guided Intramyocardial Injection and Cell Delivery in a Large Preclinical Model

1Institute for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, 2Departamento de Medicina y Cirugía Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Murcia, 3Institute of Virology and Immunology (IVI), 4Departamento de Anatomía y Anatomía Comparada, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Murcia, 5Unidad de Trasplante Hematopoyético y Terapia Celular, Departamento de Hematología, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, IMIB, Universidad de Murcia

JoVE 56699


 Medicine

Compound Administration IV

JoVE 10214

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

There are many commonly used routes for compound administration in laboratory mice and rats. Protocols may, however, require the use of the less commonly used routes: intracardiac, footpad, and retro-orbital injections. Specialized training is essential for these procedures to be performed successfully. Justification for these routes may need to be provided to gain Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) approval.


 Lab Animal Research

Preparation and In Vitro Characterization of Magnetized miR-modified Endothelial Cells

1Reference and Translation Center for Cardiac Stem Cell Therapy (RTC), Department of Cardiac Surgery, University of Rostock, 2Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, 3Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald, 4Electron Microscopy Center, University of Rostock

JoVE 55567


 Medicine

Production and Administration of Therapeutic Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cell (MSC) Spheroids Primed in 3-D Cultures Under Xeno-free Conditions

1Department of Biology, University of Mary Hardin-Baylor, 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Medical Branch, 3Multi-Organ Support Technology Task Area, U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research, 4Internal Medicine, Texas A&M University Health Science Center

JoVE 55126


 Developmental Biology

The Aortic Ring Co-culture Assay: A Convenient Tool to Assess the Angiogenic Potential of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells In Vitro

1Create Fertility Centre, 2Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Toronto, 4Department of Medical Sciences, University of Toronto, 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women's College Hospital

JoVE 56083


 Developmental Biology

Protein Kinase C-delta Inhibitor Peptide Formulation Using Gold Nanoparticles

1Latner Thoracic Surgery Research Laboratories, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, 2Respiratory Medicine Research Laboratory, Institute of Translation Medicine, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 3Institute of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58741


 JoVE In-Press

Isolation and Characterization of Human Umbilical Cord-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Preterm and Term Infants

1Department of Pediatrics, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 2Department of Pathology, Kobe Children's Hospital, 3Department of Pediatrics, Hyogo College of Medicine, 4Department of Developmental Pediatrics, Shizuoka Children's Hospital, 5Department of Pediatrics, Nihon University School of Medicine

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58806


 JoVE In-Press

Characterization of Human Monocyte Subsets by Whole Blood Flow Cytometry Analysis

1Department of Surgery, Vascular Biology Research Centre, Westmead Hospital, 2Westmead Clinical School, Department of Surgery, The University of Sydney, 3Westmead Research Hub, Westmead Institute for Medical Research, 4Institute for Clinical Pathology and Medical Research, Westmead Hospital

JoVE 57941


 Immunology and Infection

A Flow Cytometry-based Assay for Measuring Mitochondrial Membrane Potential in Cardiac Myocytes After Hypoxia/Reoxygenation

1State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Department of Cardiology, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 2State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College

JoVE 57725


 Behavior

Digital PCR for Quantifying Circulating MicroRNAs in Acute Myocardial Infarction and Cardiovascular Disease

1Department of Cardiology and Angiology I, Heart Center Freiburg University, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, 2Department of Medicine, Monash University, 3Department of Medicine I, Lighthouse Core Facility, Medical Center, University of Freiburg, 4Department of Cardiology, Augustinerinnen Hospital, Academic Teaching Hospital, University of Cologne

JoVE 57950


 Medicine

Methods for Detecting Cytotoxic Amyloids Following Infection of Pulmonary Endothelial Cells by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of South Alabama, 2Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, University of South Alabama, 3Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of South Alabama, 4Center for Lung Biology, University of South Alabama

JoVE 57447


 Immunology and Infection

Impact of Intracardiac Neurons on Cardiac Electrophysiology and Arrhythmogenesis in an Ex Vivo Langendorff System

1Department of Cardiology-Electrophysiology, cNEP (cardiac Neuro- and Electrophysiology research group), University Heart Center, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, 2DZHK (German Center for Cardiovascular Research), 3Institute of Experimental Cardiovascular Research, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf

JoVE 57617


 Medicine

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