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National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Component of the National institutes of health. It supports and conducts research, both basic and clinical, on the normal and diseases nervous system. It was established in 1950.
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Direct Induction of Human Neural Stem Cells from Peripheral Blood Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells

1Translational Neuroscience Center, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, 2Laboratory of Molecular Medicine and Neuroscience, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health

JoVE 52298


 Developmental Biology

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The Use of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy as a Tool for the Measurement of Bi-hemispheric Transcranial Electric Stimulation Effects on Primary Motor Cortex Metabolism

1Department of Psychology, University of Montréal, 2Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, 3Center for Magnetic Resonance Research and Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota

JoVE 51631


 Neuroscience

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Using Retinal Imaging to Study Dementia

1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2Department of Medicine & Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 3Therese Pei Fong Chow Research Centre for Prevention of Dementia, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 4Gerald Choa Neuroscience Centre, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 5Memory Aging and Cognition Centre, National University Health System, 6Department of Pharmacology, National University of Singapore, 7Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, 8Duke-NUS Medical School, National University of Singapore

JoVE 56137


 Medicine

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Optimized Management of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke

1Institute of Neuroradiology, University Medical Center Goettingen, 2Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 3Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Goettingen, 4Department of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Center for Infection Research, 5Institute of Medical Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Informatics, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, 6Department of Anesthesiology, University Medical Center Goettingen

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JoVE 56397


 JoVE In-Press

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A Method for Quantifying Upper Limb Performance in Daily Life Using Accelerometers

1Program in Physical Therapy, Washington University School of Medicine, 2Program in Occupational Therapy, Washington University School of Medicine, 3Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 5Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University

JoVE 55673


 Medicine

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Utilizing 3D Printing Technology to Merge MRI with Histology: A Protocol for Brain Sectioning

1Translational Neuroradiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 2Cerebral Microcirculation Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 3Viral Immunology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

JoVE 54780


 Neuroscience

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Performing Permanent Distal Middle Cerebral with Common Carotid Artery Occlusion in Aged Rats to Study Cortical Ischemia with Sustained Disability

1Wolfson Centre for Age-Related Diseases, King's College London, University of London, 2Department of Neuroimaging, James Black Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, University of London, 3Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology, Wellcome Surgical Institute, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, 4Research Service, Edward Hines Jr. VA Hospital, 5Neurology Service, Edward Hines Jr. VA Hospital, 6Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Neuroscience Research Institute, Loyola University Chicago, 7Department of Oncology, The Gray Institute for Radiation, Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford

JoVE 53106


 Medicine

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Prehospital Thrombolysis: A Manual from Berlin

1Center for Stroke Research Berlin (CSB), Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 2Klinik und Hochschulambulanz für Neurologie, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 3Medical School of the Universität Hamburg, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg - Eppendorf, 4Berliner Feuerwehr, 5STEMO-Consortium

JoVE 50534


 Medicine

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Non-invasive Imaging and Analysis of Cerebral Ischemia in Living Rats Using Positron Emission Tomography with 18F-FDG

1W. M. Keck Center for Transgene Research, University of Notre Dame, 2Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, 3Notre Dame Integrated Imaging Facility, University of Notre Dame, 4Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 5Harper Cancer Research Institute, University of Notre Dame

JoVE 51495


 Medicine

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Endothelin-1 Induced Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Model for Ischemic Stroke with Laser Doppler Flowmetry Guidance in Rat

1Department of Neurosurgery, University of Florida, 2Department of Anatomical Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran, 3Department of Physiology and Functional Genomics, University of Florida, 4Department of Neurology, University of Florida

JoVE 50014


 Medicine

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A Multimodal Imaging- and Stimulation-based Method of Evaluating Connectivity-related Brain Excitability in Patients with Epilepsy

1Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 3Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 4Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 5Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital

JoVE 53727


 Medicine

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Motor Exam II

JoVE 10095

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

There are two main types of reflexes that are tested on a neurological examination: stretch (or deep tendon reflexes) and superficial reflexes. A deep tendon reflex (DTR) results from the stimulation of a stretch-sensitive afferent from a neuromuscular spindle, which, via a single synapse, stimulates a motor nerve leading to a muscle contraction. DTRs are increased in chronic upper motor neuron lesions (lesions of the pyramidal tract) and decreased in lower motor neuron lesions and nerve and muscle disorders. There is a wide variation of responses and reflexes graded from 0 to 4+ (Table 1). DTRs are commonly tested to help localize neurologic disorders. A common method of recording findings during the DTR examination is using a stick figure diagram. The DTR test can help distinguish upper and lower motor neuron problems, and can assist in localizing nerve root compression as well. Although the DTR of nearly any skeletal muscle could be tested, the reflexes that are routinely tested are: brachioradialis, biceps, triceps, patellar, and Achilles (Table 2). Superficial reflexes are segmental ref


 Physical Examinations III

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Rapid Neuronal Differentiation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for Measuring Network Activity on Micro-electrode Arrays

1Department of Cognitive Neurosciences, Radboudumc, 2Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, 3Department of Human Genetics, Radboudumc, 4Department of Molecular Developmental Biology, Radboud University

JoVE 54900


 Developmental Biology

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Anatomically Inspired Three-dimensional Micro-tissue Engineered Neural Networks for Nervous System Reconstruction, Modulation, and Modeling

1Department of Bioengineering, School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Pennsylvania, 2Center for Brain Injury & Repair, Department of Neurosurgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3Center for Neurotrauma, Neurodegeneration & Restoration, Michael J. Crescenz Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 4School of Biomedical Engineering, Drexel University

JoVE 55609


 Neuroscience

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Adapting Human Videofluoroscopic Swallow Study Methods to Detect and Characterize Dysphagia in Murine Disease Models

1Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University of Missouri, 2Department of Communication Science and Disorders, University of Missouri, 3Department of Medicine, University of Missouri

JoVE 52319


 Medicine

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Utilizing the Modified T-Maze to Assess Functional Memory Outcomes After Cardiac Arrest

1Department of Neurology, Louisiana State University Health Science Center, 2Center for Brain Health, Louisiana State University Health Science Center, 3Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Louisiana State University Health Science Center, 4Department of Neurology, Cerebral Vascular Disease Research Laboratories, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 5Department of Biomedical Sciences, West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine

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JoVE 56694


 JoVE In-Press

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Clinical-oriented Three-dimensional Gait Analysis Method for Evaluating Gait Disorder

1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, School of Medicine, Fujita Health University, 2Faculty of Rehabilitation, School of Health Science, Fujita Health University, 3Department of Rehabilitation, Fujita Health University Hospital, 4Department of Advanced Rehabilitation Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine

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JoVE 57063


 JoVE In-Press

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Acute and Chronic Models of Hyperglycemia in Zebrafish: A Method to Assess the Impact of Hyperglycemia on Neurogenesis and the Biodistribution of Radiolabeled Molecules

1UMR 1188 Diabète athérothombose Thérapie Réunion Océan Indien (DéTROI), Saint-Denis de La Réunion, France, Université de La Réunion, INSERM, 2RIPA (Radiochimie et Imagerie du Petit Animal), Cyclotron de la Réunion Océan Indien CYROI, 3CHU de La Réunion

JoVE 55203


 Developmental Biology

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The Multiple Sclerosis Performance Test (MSPT): An iPad-Based Disability Assessment Tool

1Mellen Center for Multiple Sclerosis Treatment and Research, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 2Center for Brain Health, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 3Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation

JoVE 51318


 Medicine

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Morris Water Maze Test: Optimization for Mouse Strain and Testing Environment

1Department of Psychology, Behavioral Neuroscience, West Virginia University, 2Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, West Virginia University, 3Department of Neurology, N. Bud Grossman Center for Memory Research and Care, University of Minnesota, 4Department of Neuroscience, N. Bud Grossman Center for Memory Research and Care, University of Minnesota, 5GRECC, VA Medical Center, 6Center for Neuroscience, Center for Basic and Translational Stroke Research, West Virginia University

JoVE 52706


 Behavior

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Robotic Mirror Therapy System for Functional Recovery of Hemiplegic Arms

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 2Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Chungnam National University Hospital, 3Interdisciplinary Program for Bioengineering, Seoul National University Graduate School, 4Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, 5Seoul National University College of Medicine, 6Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University

JoVE 54521


 Bioengineering

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