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Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared: A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (Nir) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with Nir allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.

Construction of Models for Nondestructive Prediction of Ingredient Contents in Blueberries by Near-infrared Spectroscopy Based on HPLC Measurements

1United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology

JoVE 53981


 Chemistry

Using Fiberless, Wearable fNIRS to Monitor Brain Activity in Real-world Cognitive Tasks

1Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Malet Place Engineering Building, University College London, 2Infrared Imaging Lab, Institute for Advanced Biomedical Technology (ITAB), Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, University of Chieti-Pescara, 3Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Alexandra House, University College London

JoVE 53336


 Behavior

Phosphorus-31 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Tool for Measuring In Vivo Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation Capacity in Human Skeletal Muscle

1Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, The Ohio State University, 2Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, National Institute on Aging, 3Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, The Ohio State University, 4Department of Human Sciences, Human Nutrition, The Ohio State University, 5Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania

JoVE 54977


 Medicine

A Model to Simulate Clinically Relevant Hypoxia in Humans

1Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital of Bonn, 2Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Bonn, 3Institute for Terrestrial and Aquatic Wildlife Research, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, 4Institute of Physiology 2, University of Bonn

JoVE 54933


 Medicine

fMRI Validation of fNIRS Measurements During a Naturalistic Task

1Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, 2Department of Electronics and Bioinformatics, Meiji University, 3Department of Histology and Neurobiology, Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine, 4ADAM Center, Department of Physical Therapy, Movement and Rehabilitation Sciences, Northeastern University, 5Department of Neurobiology, Yale School of Medicine

JoVE 52116


 Behavior

Non-invasive Optical Measurement of Cerebral Metabolism and Hemodynamics in Infants

1Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2Lab. PALM, Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, 3Fetal-Neonatal Neuroimaging and Developmental Science Center, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 4ISS, INC.

JoVE 4379


 Medicine

Simultaneous Event-Related Brain Potential Recordings in Pairs of Partners: Assessing the Sensitivity of the Brain to the Percepts of Others

1Douglas Mental Health University Institute, 2Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, 3Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, McGill University, 4Department of Psychology, McGill University

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56120


 JoVE In-Press

A Familiarization Protocol Facilitates the Participation of Children with ASD in Electrophysiological Research

1Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Southern Connecticut State University, 2Haskins Laboratories, 3Department of Psychology, Southern Connecticut State University, 4Department of Social Work, Southern Connecticut State University, 5Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut

JoVE 55941


 Neuroscience

An Introduction to Neurophysiology

JoVE 5201

Neurophysiology is broadly defined as the study of nervous system function. In this field, scientists investigate the central and peripheral nervous systems at the level of whole organs, cellular networks, single cells, or even subcellular compartments. A unifying feature of this wide-ranging discipline is an interest in the mechanisms that lead to the generation and propagation of electrical impulses within and between neurons. This subject is important not only for our understanding of the fascinating processes driving human thought, but also for our ability to diagnose and treat disorders related to nervous system malfunction. This video will provide an introduction to the field of neurophysiology, beginning with a brief history of neurophysiological research that showcases landmark studies like Galvani’s observations of twitching frog legs and Eccles’s discovery of the chemical synapse. Next, key questions asked by neurophysiologists are introduced, followed by an overview of some prominent experimental tools used to answer those questions. The methods presented range from techniques used to investigate single cells, like patch clamping, to those that can measure activity across large regions of the brain, like electroencephalography (EEG). Finally, applications of neurophysiological research are discuss


 Neuroscience

Coherence between Brain Cortical Function and Neurocognitive Performance during Changed Gravity Conditions

1Institute of Movement and Neurosciences, German Sport University Cologne, 2Deptartment of Surgical Skills, University of Toronto, 3School of Human Movement Studies, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, 4Brain Products GmbH, Scientific Support, Gilching, Germany

JoVE 2670


 Neuroscience

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