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Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of Neurons, including the Axons and their glial envelopes (Myelin sheath). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the central nervous system.

Cranial Nerves Exam I (I-VI)

JoVE 10091

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA


During each section of the neurological testing, the examiner uses the powers of observation to assess the patient. In some cases, cranial nerve dysfunction is readily apparent: a patient might…

 Physical Examinations III

Structured Motor Rehabilitation After Selective Nerve Transfers

1Clinical Laboratory for Bionic Extremity Reconstruction, Medical University of Vienna, 2Bioengineering Department, Imperial College London, 3Master's Degree Program Health Assisting Engineering, University of Applied Sciences FH Campus Wien, 4Department of Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, 5Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Medical University of Vienna

JoVE 59840

 Medicine

Vision

JoVE 10858

Vision is the result of light being detected and transduced into neural signals by the retina of the eye. This information is then further analyzed and interpreted by the brain. First, light enters the front of the eye and is focused by the cornea and lens onto the retina—a thin sheet of neural tissue lining the back of the eye. Because of refraction through the convex lens of the eye, images are projected onto the retina upside-down and reversed. Light is absorbed by the rod and cone photoreceptor cells at the back of the retina, causing a decrease in their rate of neurotransmitter release. In addition to detecting photons of light, color information is also encoded here, since different types of cones respond maximally to different wavelengths of light. The photoreceptors then send visual information to bipolar cells near the middle of the retina, which is followed by projection to ganglion cells at the front of the retina. Horizontal and amacrine cells mediate lateral interactions between these cell types, integrating information from multiple photoreceptors. This integration aids in the initial processing of visual information, such as detecting simple features, like edges. Along with glial cells, the axons of the retinal ganglion cells make up the optic nerve, which transmits visual information to the brain. The optic nerve partially cro

 Core: Sensory Systems

In Vitro Recording of Mesenteric Afferent Nerve Activity in Mouse Jejunal and Colonic Segments

1Laboratory of Experimental Medicine and Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Antwerp, 2Visceral Pain Group, Discipline of Medicine, University of Adelaide, 3Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sheffield, 4Department of Pharmacy, Pharmacology and Postgraduate Medicine, University of Hertfordshire, 5Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Antwerp University Hospital

JoVE 54576

 Neuroscience

Finding Your Blind Spot and Perceptual Filling-in

JoVE 10195

Source: Laboratory of Jonathan Flombaum—Johns Hopkins University


In the back of everyone's eye is a small piece of neural tissue called the retina. The retina has photosensitive cells that respond to stimulation by light. The responses of these cells are sent into the brain through the optic nerve, a bundle of neural fibers. In each…

 Sensation and Perception

Bone Structure

JoVE 10864

Within the skeletal system, the structure of a bone, or osseous tissue, can be exemplified in a long bone, like the femur, where there are two types of osseous tissue: cortical and cancellous.

Covering the cortical, or compact bone, is a membrane called the periosteum, which contains connective tissue, capillaries, and nerves. The outer, solid layer—found along the diaphysis, the shaft—forms a dense protective shell around the medullary canal—the cavity that stores yellow bone marrow, composed primarily of fat cells. This space is also covered in a thin lining—the endosteum in which bone growth, remodeling, and repair occur. Within the dense layer of cortical bone are osteons—structural units, arranged in concentric rings called lamellae, that contain osteoblasts—cells critical for bone formation and growth. These cells eventually mature into osteocytes in the hollow space, the lacuna. Through the center of each osteon runs the Haversian canal, which contains more blood and lymphatic vessels, as well as nerve fibers. Towards the rounded ends of the long bone, the epiphyses is the second type of osseous tissue, known as the cancellous, or spongy, bone. This inner layer is composed of a honeycomb-like network of trabeculae—grouped arrangements that form along the lines of stress points to maximize strengt

 Core: Musculoskeletal System

Ophthalmoscopic Examination

JoVE 10146

Source: Richard Glickman-Simon, MD, Assistant Professor, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, MA


The simplest ophthalmoscopes consist of an aperture to look through, a diopter indicator, and a disc for selecting lenses. The ophthalmoscope is primarily used to examine the fundus, or the…

 Physical Examinations II

Flat Mount Imaging of Mouse Skin and Its Application to the Analysis of Hair Follicle Patterning and Sensory Axon Morphology

1Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 2Department of Neuroscience, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

JoVE 51749

 Neuroscience

Assessment of the Cytotoxic and Immunomodulatory Effects of Substances in Human Precision-cut Lung Slices

1Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine (ITEM), German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Biomedical Research in Endstage and Obstructive Lung Disease Hannover (BREATH), Member of REBIRTH Cluster of Excellence, 2Institute for Pathology, Hannover Medical School, German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Biomedical Research in Endstage and Obstructive Lung Disease Hannover (BREATH), 3Division of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Klinikum Region Hannover (KRH), 4Department of Cardiothoracic, Transplantation and Vascular Surgery (HTTG), Hannover Medical School, German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Biomedical Research in Endstage and Obstructive Lung Disease Hannover (BREATH), 5Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, RWTH Aachen University, 6Institute for Immunology, Hannover Medical School

JoVE 57042

 Immunology and Infection

Generation of 3-D Collagen-based Hydrogels to Analyze Axonal Growth and Behavior During Nervous System Development

1Molecular and Cellular Neurobiotechnology, Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST), Parc Científic de Barcelona, 2Department of Cell Biology, Physiology, and Immunology, Universitat de Barcelona, 3Center for Networked Biomedical Research on Neurodegenerative Diseases (CIBERNED), 4Institute of Neuroscience, University of Barcelona

JoVE 59481

 Neuroscience

Bovine Mammary Gland Biopsy Techniques

1National Animal Nutrition Program, a National Research Support Project (NRSP-9), Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Kentucky, 2School of Performing Arts, Virginia Tech, 3Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, The Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, 4Department of Dairy Science, Virginia Tech, 5Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, 6School of Visual Arts, Virginia Tech

JoVE 58602

 Biology

Evaluation of Zika Virus-specific T-cell Responses in Immunoprivileged Organs of Infected Ifnar1-/- Mice

1School of Laboratory Medicine and Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, 2NHC Key Laboratory of Medical Virology and Viral Diseases, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 3State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, 4Research Network of Immunity and Health (RNIH), Beijing Institutes of Life Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5Laboratory Animal Center, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 6CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences

JoVE 58110

 Immunology and Infection

Stereological Estimation of Cholinergic Fiber Length in the Nucleus Basalis of Meynert of the Mouse Brain

1Laboratory for Alzheimer's Disease and Aging Research, Kansas City Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 2Department of Neurology, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Kansas Medical Center, 4The University of Kansas Alzheimer's Disease Center

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 60405

 JoVE In-Press

Use of In Vivo Single-fiber Recording and Intact Dorsal Root Ganglion with Attached Sciatic Nerve to Examine the Mechanism of Conduction Failure

1Department of Neurobiology, School of Basic Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, 2Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, ShanXi Medical University, 3Department of Psychology, Fourth Military Medical University, 4Department of Neurobiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Advanced Innovation Center for Human Brain Protection, Capital Medical University, 5Neuroscience Research Institute, Key Lab for Neuroscience, Ministry of Education/National Health Commission, Peking University, 6Department of Radiation Biology, Faculty of Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University

JoVE 59234

 Neuroscience

Targeting Alpha Synuclein Aggregates in Cutaneous Peripheral Nerve Fibers by Free-floating Immunofluorescence Assay

1Laboratory for Biomedical Neurosciences, Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, 2Neurology Department, Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, 3Department of Neurology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, 4Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Università della Svizzera Italiana

JoVE 59558

 Neuroscience

Wet-spinning-based Molding Process of Gelatin for Tissue Regeneration

1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 2Laboratory of Adult Stem Cell and Tissue Regeneration, National Defense Medical Center, 3School of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, 4Department and Graduate Institute of Biology and Anatomy, National Defense Medical Center, 5Department of Gerontological Health Care, National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Sciences, 6Division of Rheumatology/Immunology/Allergy, Department of Internal Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, 7Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Graduate Institute of Physiology, National Defense Medical Center, 8Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center

JoVE 58932

 Bioengineering

Visualization of 3D White Adipose Tissue Structure Using Whole-mount Staining

1Translational Medicine Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, 2Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, 3Neurosciences & Mental Health Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, 4Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Smart-Aging Convergence Research Center, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, 5Banting and Best Diabetes Centre, University of Toronto

JoVE 58683

 Biology

Ethanol-Induced Cervical Sympathetic Ganglion Block Applications for Promoting Canine Inferior Alveolar Nerve Regeneration Using an Artificial Nerve

1Department of Dental Anesthesia, Nippon Dental University Hospital at Tokyo, 2Department of Dental Anesthesiology, Nippon Dental University School of Life Dentistry at Tokyo, 3Department of Bioartificial Organs, Institute for Frontier Medical Science, Kyoto University

JoVE 58039

 Neuroscience

Characterization of the Interaction of Primary Cells from the Rat Inner Ear with Polymer Films As Coatings for Cochlear Implant Electrode Surface

1Institute of Neuroanatomy and Cell Biology, Hannover Medical School, 2Institute for Technical Chemistry, University of Technology Braunschweig, 3Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hannover Medical School

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56792

 JoVE In-Press
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