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Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of Neurons, including the Axons and their glial envelopes (Myelin sheath). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the central nervous system.

Cranial Nerves Exam I (I-VI)

JoVE 10091

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA


During each section of the neurological testing, the examiner uses the powers of observation to assess the patient. In some cases, cranial nerve dysfunction is readily apparent: a patient might…

 Physical Examinations III

Vision

JoVE 10858

Vision is the result of light being detected and transduced into neural signals by the retina of the eye. This information is then further analyzed and interpreted by the brain. First, light enters the front of the eye and is focused by the cornea and lens onto the retina—a thin sheet of neural tissue lining the back of the eye. Because of refraction through the convex lens of the eye, images are projected onto the retina upside-down and reversed. Light is absorbed by the rod and cone photoreceptor cells at the back of the retina, causing a decrease in their rate of neurotransmitter release. In addition to detecting photons of light, color information is also encoded here, since different types of cones respond maximally to different wavelengths of light. The photoreceptors then send visual information to bipolar cells near the middle of the retina, which is followed by projection to ganglion cells at the front of the retina. Horizontal and amacrine cells mediate lateral interactions between these cell types, integrating information from multiple photoreceptors. This integration aids in the initial processing of visual information, such as detecting simple features, like edges. Along with glial cells, the axons of the retinal ganglion cells make up the optic nerve, which transmits visual information to the brain. The optic nerve partially cro

 Core: Biology

Finding Your Blind Spot and Perceptual Filling-in

JoVE 10195

Source: Laboratory of Jonathan Flombaum—Johns Hopkins University


In the back of everyone's eye is a small piece of neural tissue called the retina. The retina has photosensitive cells that respond to stimulation by light. The responses of these cells are sent into the brain through the optic nerve, a bundle of neural fibers. In each…

 Sensation and Perception

Bone Structure

JoVE 10864

Within the skeletal system, the structure of a bone, or osseous tissue, can be exemplified in a long bone, like the femur, where there are two types of osseous tissue: cortical and cancellous.

Covering the cortical, or compact bone, is a membrane called the periosteum, which contains connective tissue, capillaries, and nerves. The outer, solid layer—found along the diaphysis, the shaft—forms a dense protective shell around the medullary canal—the cavity that stores yellow bone marrow, composed primarily of fat cells. This space is also covered in a thin lining—the endosteum in which bone growth, remodeling, and repair occur. Within the dense layer of cortical bone are osteons—structural units, arranged in concentric rings called lamellae, that contain osteoblasts—cells critical for bone formation and growth. These cells eventually mature into osteocytes in the hollow space, the lacuna. Through the center of each osteon runs the Haversian canal, which contains more blood and lymphatic vessels, as well as nerve fibers. Towards the rounded ends of the long bone, the epiphyses is the second type of osseous tissue, known as the cancellous, or spongy, bone. This inner layer is composed of a honeycomb-like network of trabeculae—grouped arrangements that form along the lines of stress points to maximize strengt

 Core: Biology

Ophthalmoscopic Examination

JoVE 10146

Source: Richard Glickman-Simon, MD, Assistant Professor, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, MA


The simplest ophthalmoscopes consist of an aperture to look through, a diopter indicator, and a disc for selecting lenses. The ophthalmoscope is primarily used to examine the fundus, or the…

 Physical Examinations II

Structured Motor Rehabilitation After Selective Nerve Transfers

1Clinical Laboratory for Bionic Extremity Reconstruction, Medical University of Vienna, 2Bioengineering Department, Imperial College London, 3Master's Degree Program Health Assisting Engineering, University of Applied Sciences FH Campus Wien, 4Department of Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, 5Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Medical University of Vienna

JoVE 59840

 Medicine

In Vitro Recording of Mesenteric Afferent Nerve Activity in Mouse Jejunal and Colonic Segments

1Laboratory of Experimental Medicine and Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Antwerp, 2Visceral Pain Group, Discipline of Medicine, University of Adelaide, 3Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sheffield, 4Department of Pharmacy, Pharmacology and Postgraduate Medicine, University of Hertfordshire, 5Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Antwerp University Hospital

JoVE 54576

 Neuroscience

Flat Mount Imaging of Mouse Skin and Its Application to the Analysis of Hair Follicle Patterning and Sensory Axon Morphology

1Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 2Department of Neuroscience, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

JoVE 51749

 Neuroscience

Use of In Vivo Single-fiber Recording and Intact Dorsal Root Ganglion with Attached Sciatic Nerve to Examine the Mechanism of Conduction Failure

1Department of Neurobiology, School of Basic Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, 2Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, ShanXi Medical University, 3Department of Psychology, Fourth Military Medical University, 4Department of Neurobiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Advanced Innovation Center for Human Brain Protection, Capital Medical University, 5Neuroscience Research Institute, Key Lab for Neuroscience, Ministry of Education/National Health Commission, Peking University, 6Department of Radiation Biology, Faculty of Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University

JoVE 59234

 Neuroscience

Targeting Alpha Synuclein Aggregates in Cutaneous Peripheral Nerve Fibers by Free-floating Immunofluorescence Assay

1Laboratory for Biomedical Neurosciences, Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, 2Neurology Department, Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, 3Department of Neurology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, 4Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Università della Svizzera Italiana

JoVE 59558

 Neuroscience

Wet-spinning-based Molding Process of Gelatin for Tissue Regeneration

1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 2Laboratory of Adult Stem Cell and Tissue Regeneration, National Defense Medical Center, 3School of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, 4Department and Graduate Institute of Biology and Anatomy, National Defense Medical Center, 5Department of Gerontological Health Care, National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Sciences, 6Division of Rheumatology/Immunology/Allergy, Department of Internal Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, 7Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Graduate Institute of Physiology, National Defense Medical Center, 8Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center

JoVE 58932

 Bioengineering

Visualization of 3D White Adipose Tissue Structure Using Whole-mount Staining

1Translational Medicine Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, 2Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, 3Neurosciences & Mental Health Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, 4Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Smart-Aging Convergence Research Center, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, 5Banting and Best Diabetes Centre, University of Toronto

JoVE 58683

 Biology

Ethanol-Induced Cervical Sympathetic Ganglion Block Applications for Promoting Canine Inferior Alveolar Nerve Regeneration Using an Artificial Nerve

1Department of Dental Anesthesia, Nippon Dental University Hospital at Tokyo, 2Department of Dental Anesthesiology, Nippon Dental University School of Life Dentistry at Tokyo, 3Department of Bioartificial Organs, Institute for Frontier Medical Science, Kyoto University

JoVE 58039

 Neuroscience

Characterization of the Interaction of Primary Cells from the Rat Inner Ear with Polymer Films As Coatings for Cochlear Implant Electrode Surface

1Institute of Neuroanatomy and Cell Biology, Hannover Medical School, 2Institute for Technical Chemistry, University of Technology Braunschweig, 3Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hannover Medical School

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56792

 JoVE In-Press

High Resolution 3D Imaging of the Human Pancreas Neuro-insular Network

1Department of Pathology, Immunology and Experimental Medicine, University of Florida, 2Heller School for Social Policy and Management, Brandeis University, 3Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Florida, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Florida, 5Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Florida

JoVE 56859

 Bioengineering

Corneal Tissue Engineering: An In Vitro Model of the Stromal-nerve Interactions of the Human Cornea

1Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 2Department of Ophthalmology/Dean McGee Eye Institute, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 3Department of Physiology, Harold Hamm Diabetes Center, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center

JoVE 56308

 Developmental Biology
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