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Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Antibody Binding Specificity for Kappa (Vκ) Light Chain-containing Human (IgM) Antibodies: Polysialic Acid (PSA) Attached to NCAM as a Case Study

1Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, 2Mayo Clinic Center for Multiple Sclerosis and Autoimmune Neurology, Mayo Clinic, 3Center for Regenerative Medicine, Neuroregeneration, Mayo Clinic, 4Division of Neonatal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 5Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Mayo Clinic


JoVE 54139

 JoVE Biology

Purification of Transcripts and Metabolites from Drosophila Heads

1Department of Neurology, McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida, 2Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, 3Genetics Institute, Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida, 4McKnight Brain Institute, Department of Neuroscience, Genetics Institute, Center for Translational Research on Neurodegenerative Diseases, and Center for Movement Disorders and Neurorestoration, University of Florida


JoVE 50245

 JoVE Developmental Biology

Dual Labeling of Neural Crest Cells and Blood Vessels Within Chicken Embryos Using ChickGFP Neural Tube Grafting and Carbocyanine Dye DiI Injection

1Birth Defects Research Centre, UCL Institute of Child Health, 2Blizard Institute, Centre for Digestive Diseases, Queen Mary University of London, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, 3Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam


JoVE 52514

 JoVE In-Press

Isolation of Primary Murine Retinal Ganglion Cells (RGCs) by Flow Cytometry

1Department of Ophthalmology, Hamilton Eye Institute, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 2Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 3Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 4Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biochemistry, University of Tennessee Health Science Center

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JoVE 55785

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Determining Immune System Suppression versus CNS Protection for Pharmacological Interventions in Autoimmune Demyelination

1Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 2Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 3Department of Neurobiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 4Center for Glial Biology and Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham


JoVE 54348

 JoVE Developmental Biology

Imaging Subcellular Structures in the Living Zebrafish Embryo

1Institute of Neuronal Cell Biology, Technische Universität München, 2Cell Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, 3Faculty of Biology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität-München, 4Adolf-Butenandt-Institute, Biochemistry, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität-München, 5German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, 6Laboratory of Brain Development and Repair, The Rockefeller University


JoVE 53456

 JoVE Neuroscience

Transplantation of Olfactory Ensheathing Cells to Evaluate Functional Recovery after Peripheral Nerve Injury

1UPRES EA3830, Institute for Research and Innovation in Biomedicine, University of Rouen, 2Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, 3Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Department, Rouen University Hospital, 4Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Department, Amiens University Hospital


JoVE 50590

 JoVE Medicine

Assessing Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Species Barriers with an In Vitro Prion Protein Conversion Assay

1USGS National Wildlife Health Center, 2Department of Soil Science, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 3Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 4Merial Veterinary Scholars Program, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 5Department of Neurology, University of British Columbia


JoVE 52522

 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations III

Motor Exam II

JoVE Science Education

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

There are two main types of reflexes that are tested on a neurological examination: stretch (or deep tendon reflexes) and superficial reflexes. A deep tendon reflex (DTR) results from the stimulation of a stretch-sensitive afferent from a neuromuscular spindle, which, via a single synapse, stimulates a motor nerve leading to a muscle contraction. DTRs are increased in chronic upper motor neuron lesions (lesions of the pyramidal tract) and decreased in lower motor neuron lesions and nerve and muscle disorders. There is a wide variation of responses and reflexes graded from 0 to 4+ (Table 1). DTRs are commonly tested to help localize neurologic disorders. A common method of recording findings during the DTR examination is using a stick figure diagram. The DTR test can help distinguish upper and lower motor neuron problems, and can assist in localizing nerve root compression as well. Although the DTR of nearly any skeletal muscle could be tested, the reflexes that are routinely tested are: brachioradialis, biceps, triceps, patellar, and Achilles (Table 2). Superficial reflexes are segmental ref

 JoVE Neuroscience

Isolating Nasal Olfactory Stem Cells from Rodents or Humans

1NICN, Aix Marseille University, 2LNPM, Aix Marseille University, 3ENT Department, Aix Marseille University, 4Gene expression Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 5Laboratory of Speech and Language, Aix Marseille University, 6Centre d'Investigations Cliniques en Biothérapie, Aix Marseille University


JoVE 2762

 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations III

Cranial Nerves Exam I (I-VI)

JoVE Science Education

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

During each section of the neurological testing, the examiner uses the powers of observation to assess the patient. In some cases, cranial nerve dysfunction is readily apparent: a patient might mention a characteristic chief complaint (such as loss of smell or diplopia), or a visually evident physical sign of cranial nerve involvement, such as in facial nerve palsy. However, in many cases a patient's history doesn't directly suggest cranial nerve pathologies, as some of them (such as sixth nerve palsy) may have subtle manifestations and can only be uncovered by a careful neurological exam. Importantly, a variety of pathological conditions that are associated with alterations in mental status (such as some neurodegenerative disorders or brain lesions) can also cause cranial nerve dysfunction; therefore, any abnormal findings during a mental status exam should prompt a careful and complete neurological exam. The cranial nerve examination is applied neuroanatomy. The cranial nerves are symmetrical; therefore, while performing the examination, the examiner should compare each side to the other. A physician should approach the examination in a

 JoVE Neuroscience

Vibratome Sectioning Mouse Retina to Prepare Photoreceptor Cultures

1Department of Genetics, UMR_S 968, Institut de la Vision, 2Department of Visual Information, UMR_S 968, Institut de la Vision, 3Exploratory Team, UMR_S 968, Institut de la Vision, 4Sorbonne Universités, Paris 06, UMR_S 968, Institut de la Vision, 5INSERM, U968, Institut de la Vision, 6CNRS, UMR_7210, Institut de la Vision


JoVE 51954

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