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Neurodegenerative Diseases: Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.

Cellular Respiration- Concept

JoVE 10567

Autotrophs and Heterotrophs

Living organisms require a continuous input of energy to maintain cellular and organismal functions such as growth, repair, movement, defense, and reproduction. Cells can only use chemical energy to fuel their functions, therefore they need to harvest energy from chemical bonds of biomolecules, such as sugars and lipids. Autotrophic organisms, namely…

 Lab Bio

Genetic Screens

JoVE 5542

Genetic screens are critical tools for defining gene function and understanding gene interactions. Screens typically involve mutating genes and then assessing the affected organisms for phenotypes of interest. The process can be “forward”, where mutations are generated randomly to identify unknown genes responsible for the phenotypes, or it can be…

 Genetics

Glial Cells

JoVE 10843

Glial cells are one of the two main types of cells in the nervous system. Glia cells comprise astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, and ependymal cells in the central nervous system, and satellite and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system. These cells do not communicate via electrical signals like neurons do, but they contribute to virtually every other aspect of nervous system function. In humans, the number of glial cells is roughly equal to the number of neurons in the brain. Glia in the central nervous system (CNS) include astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, and ependymal cells. Astrocytes are the most abundant type of glial cell and are found in organized, non-overlapping patterns throughout the brain, where they closely associate with neurons and capillaries. Astrocytes play numerous roles in brain function, including regulating blood flow and metabolic processes, synaptic ion and pH homeostasis, and blood-brain barrier maintenance. Another specialized glial cell, the oligodendrocyte, forms the myelin sheath that surrounds neuronal axons in the CNS. Oligodendrocytes extend long cellular processes that wrap around axons multiple times to form this coating. Myelin sheath is required for proper conduction of neuronal signaling and greatly increases the speed at which these messages travel. Microglia—known as the macrop

 Core: Nervous System

Cytoplasm

JoVE 10967

The cytoplasm consists of organelles, an aqueous solution called the cytosol, and a framework of protein scaffolds called the cytoskeleton. The cytosol is a rich broth of ions, small organic molecules such as glucose, and macromolecules such as proteins. Several cellular processes including protein synthesis occur in the cytoplasm.

The composition of the cytosol promotes protein folding such that hydrophobic amino acid side chains are oriented away from the aqueous solution and towards the protein core. However, cellular stressors such as aging and changes in pH, temperature, or osmolarity cause protein misfolding. Misfolded proteins may aggregate to form insoluble deposits in the cytoplasm. Insoluble protein aggregates are implicated in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The eukaryotic cytoskeleton consists of three types of filamentous proteins: microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments. Microtubules–the largest type of filament–are made up of the protein tubulin. Microtubules are dynamic structures that can grow or shrink by adding or removing tubulin molecules from the ends of their strands. They provide structural stability and provide tracks for the transport of proteins and vesicles within the cell. In addition, microtubules play a

 Core: Cell Structure and Function

An Introduction to Caenorhabditis elegans

JoVE 5103

Caenorhabditis elegans is a microscopic, soil-dwelling roundworm that has been powerfully used as a model organism since the early 1970’s. It was initially proposed as a model for developmental biology because of its invariant body plan, ease of genetic manipulation and low cost of maintenance. Since then C. elegans has rapidly grown in popularity and is now utilized…

 Biology I

An Introduction to Endocytosis and Exocytosis

JoVE 5646

Cells can take in substances from the extracellular environment by endocytosis and actively release molecules into it by exocytosis. Such processes involve lipid membrane-bound sacs called vesicles. Knowledge of the molecular architecture and mechanisms of both is key to understanding normal cell physiology, as well as the disease states that arise when they become…

 Cell Biology

An Introduction to Neuroanatomy

JoVE 5204

Neuroanatomy is the study of nervous system structures and how they relate to function. One focus of neuroanatomists is the macroscopic structures within the central and peripheral nervous systems, like the cortical folds on the surface of the brain. However, scientists in this field are also interested in the microscopic relationships between neurons and glia - the two…

 Neuroscience

Dietary Connections

JoVE 10746

Metabolic pathways are interconnected. The cellular respiration processes that convert glucose to ATP—such as glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, and the citric acid cycle—tie into those that break down other organic compounds. As a result, various foods—from apples to cheese to guacamole—end up as ATP. In addition to carbohydrates, food also contains proteins and lipids—such as cholesterol and of these organic compounds are used as energy sources (i.e., to produce ATP). The human body possesses several enzymes that break down carbohydrates into simple sugars. While glucose can enter glycolysis directly, some simple sugars, such as fructose and galactose, are first converted into sugars that are intermediates of the glycolytic pathway. Proteins are broken down by enzymes into their constituent amino acids, which are usually recycled to create new proteins. However, if the body is starving or there is a surplus of amino acids, some amino acids can lose their amino groups and subsequently enter cellular respiration. The lost amino groups are converted into ammonia and incorporated into waste products. Different amino acids enter cellular respiration at different stages, including glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, and the citric acid cycle. Amino acids can also be produced from intermediates in cellular respiration processes. Lipids, such as choleste

 Core: Cellular Respiration

Isolation of Primary Murine Retinal Ganglion Cells (RGCs) by Flow Cytometry

1Department of Ophthalmology, Hamilton Eye Institute, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 2Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biochemistry, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 3Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 4Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tennessee Health Science Center

JoVE 55785

 Bioengineering

Non-restraining EEG Radiotelemetry: Epidural and Deep Intracerebral Stereotaxic EEG Electrode Placement

1Department of Neuropsychopharmacology, Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (Bundesinstitut für Arzneimittel und Medizinprodukte, BfArM), 2Molecular and Cellular Cognition Lab, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (Deutsches Zentrum für Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen, DZNE)

JoVE 54216

 Neuroscience

In Vitro and In Vivo Detection of Mitophagy in Human Cells, C. Elegans, and Mice

1Laboratory of Molecular Gerontology, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, 2Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas, 3Center for Molecular Medicine, National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, 4Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, 5Nuffield Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Oxford, 6Department of Clinical Molecular Biology, University of Oslo and Akershus University Hospital, 7Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, 8Danish Center for Healthy Aging, University of Copenhagen

JoVE 56301

 Medicine

Automatic Detection of Highly Organized Theta Oscillations in the Murine EEG

1Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Cologne, 2Department of Neuropsychopharmacology, Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices, 3Molecular and Cellular Cognition Lab, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, 4Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices

JoVE 55089

 Behavior

Quantitative Cell Biology of Neurodegeneration in Drosophila Through Unbiased Analysis of Fluorescently Tagged Proteins Using ImageJ

1Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 2School of Pharmacy, Key Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology and Drug Evaluation (Yantai University), Ministry of Education, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Drug Delivery System and Biotech Drugs in Universities of Shandong, Yantai University

JoVE 58041

 Neuroscience

Polysome Profiling in Leishmania, Human Cells and Mouse Testis

1Department of Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 2Department of Biological Sciences, Texas Tech University, 3CISER (Center for the Integration of STEM Education & Research), Texas Tech University

JoVE 57600

 Biochemistry

Quantification of three DNA Lesions by Mass Spectrometry and Assessment of Their Levels in Tissues of Mice Exposed to Ambient Fine Particulate Matter

1Departamento de Análises Clínicas e Toxicológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, 2Departamento de Farmacociências, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, 3Laboratório de Poluição Atmosfêrica Experimental - LIM05, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, 4Instituto de Estudos Avançados, Universidade de São Paulo, 5Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo

JoVE 59734

 Immunology and Infection

Lentiviral Vector Platform for the Efficient Delivery of Epigenome-editing Tools into Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Disease Models

1Department of Neurology, Duke University Medical Center, 2Center for Genomic and Computational Biology, Duke University Medical Center, 3Viral Vector Core, Duke University Medical Center, 4Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Duke University Medical Center

JoVE 59241

 Genetics

fMRI Validation of fNIRS Measurements During a Naturalistic Task

1Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, 2Department of Electronics and Bioinformatics, Meiji University, 3Department of Histology and Neurobiology, Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine, 4ADAM Center, Department of Physical Therapy, Movement and Rehabilitation Sciences, Northeastern University, 5Department of Neurobiology, Yale School of Medicine

JoVE 52116

 Behavior

Targeted Next-generation Sequencing and Bioinformatics Pipeline to Evaluate Genetic Determinants of Constitutional Disease

1Robarts Research Institute, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, 2Department of Biochemistry, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, 3Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Center for Genomic Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Stanley Centre for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, 4Tanz Centre for Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Toronto, 5School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Queen's University, 6Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, 7CHEO Research Institute, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, 8Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences, Western University, 9Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, 10Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, 11Morton and Gloria Shulman Movement Disorders Centre, Toronto Western Hospital, 12Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, 13Parkwood Institute, St. Joseph's Health Care, 14Department of Medicine, Division of Neurology, McMaster University, 15Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, Baycrest Health Sciences, 16Canadian Partnership for Stroke Recovery Sunnybrook Site, Sunnybrook Health Science Centre, University of Toronto

JoVE 57266

 Genetics

Novel Atomic Force Microscopy Based Biopanning for Isolation of Morphology Specific Reagents against TDP-43 Variants in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

1School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, 2Department of Neurology, Georgetown University Medical Center, 3Department of Pathology, Georgetown University Medical Center

JoVE 52584

 Bioengineering

A Multimodal Imaging- and Stimulation-based Method of Evaluating Connectivity-related Brain Excitability in Patients with Epilepsy

1Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 3Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 4Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 5Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital

JoVE 53727

 Medicine

Antibody Binding Specificity for Kappa (Vκ) Light Chain-containing Human (IgM) Antibodies: Polysialic Acid (PSA) Attached to NCAM as a Case Study

1Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, 2Mayo Clinic Center for Multiple Sclerosis and Autoimmune Neurology, Mayo Clinic, 3Center for Regenerative Medicine, Neuroregeneration, Mayo Clinic, 4Division of Neonatal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 5Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Mayo Clinic

JoVE 54139

 Immunology and Infection

High-throughput Analysis of Locomotor Behavior in the Drosophila Island Assay

1Department of Human Genetics, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Medical Center, 2Centre for Molecular and Biomolecular Informatics, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, 3Department of Neurology, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Medical Center

JoVE 55892

 Neuroscience
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