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Neurons, Efferent: Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.
 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations III

Cranial Nerves Exam I (I-VI)

JoVE Science Education

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

During each section of the neurological testing, the examiner uses the powers of observation to assess the patient. In some cases, cranial nerve dysfunction is readily apparent: a patient might mention a characteristic chief complaint (such as loss of smell or diplopia), or a visually evident physical sign of cranial nerve involvement, such as in facial nerve palsy. However, in many cases a patient's history doesn't directly suggest cranial nerve pathologies, as some of them (such as sixth nerve palsy) may have subtle manifestations and can only be uncovered by a careful neurological exam. Importantly, a variety of pathological conditions that are associated with alterations in mental status (such as some neurodegenerative disorders or brain lesions) can also cause cranial nerve dysfunction; therefore, any abnormal findings during a mental status exam should prompt a careful and complete neurological exam. The cranial nerve examination is applied neuroanatomy. The cranial nerves are symmetrical; therefore, while performing the examination, the examiner should compare each side to the other. A physician should approach the examination in a

 JoVE Neuroscience

In Vitro Recording of Mesenteric Afferent Nerve Activity in Mouse Jejunal and Colonic Segments

1Laboratory of Experimental Medicine and Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Antwerp, 2Visceral Pain Group, Discipline of Medicine, University of Adelaide, 3Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sheffield, 4Department of Pharmacy, Pharmacology and Postgraduate Medicine, University of Hertfordshire, 5Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Antwerp University Hospital


JoVE 54576

 JoVE Neuroscience

Simultaneous Detection of c-Fos Activation from Mesolimbic and Mesocortical Dopamine Reward Sites Following Naive Sugar and Fat Ingestion in Rats

1Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Cluster, Psychology Doctoral Program, The Graduate Center, CUNY, New York, NY, 2Department of Psychology, Queens College, CUNY, Flushing, NY, 3Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Cluster, Psychology Doctoral Program, The Graduate Center, CUNY, Flushing, NY


JoVE 53897

 JoVE Neuroscience

Two Algorithms for High-throughput and Multi-parametric Quantification of Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction Morphology

1Department of Human Genetics, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Medical Center, 2Microscopical Imaging Centre (MIC), Radboud University Medical Center, 3Department of Biology, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 4Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, 5Department of Pathology, Radboud University Medical Center


JoVE 55395

 JoVE Neuroscience

Flat Mount Imaging of Mouse Skin and Its Application to the Analysis of Hair Follicle Patterning and Sensory Axon Morphology

1Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 2Department of Neuroscience, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine


JoVE 51749

 JoVE Behavior

Using Fiberless, Wearable fNIRS to Monitor Brain Activity in Real-world Cognitive Tasks

1Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Malet Place Engineering Building, University College London, 2Infrared Imaging Lab, Institute for Advanced Biomedical Technology (ITAB), Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, University of Chieti-Pescara, 3Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Alexandra House, University College London


JoVE 53336

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 JoVE Developmental Biology

Rapid Neuronal Differentiation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for Measuring Network Activity on Micro-electrode Arrays

1Department of Cognitive Neurosciences, Radboudumc, 2Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, 3Department of Human Genetics, Radboudumc, 4Department of Molecular Developmental Biology, Radboud University


JoVE 54900

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 JoVE In-Press

Three-Dimensional Tissue Engineered Aligned Astrocyte Networks to Recapitulate Developmental Mechanisms and Facilitate Nervous System Regeneration

1Center for Brain Injury & Repair, Department of Neurosurgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 2Center for Neurotrauma, Neurodegeneration & Restoration, Michael J. Crescenz Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 3School of Biomedical Engineering, Drexel University, 4Department of Bioengineering, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, University of Pennsylvania, 5Neuroscience Graduate Group, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania

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JoVE 55848

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