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Nitric Oxide Synthase: An Nadph-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-Arginine and Oxygen to produce Citrulline and Nitric oxide.

Paracrine Signaling

JoVE 10716

Paracrine signaling allows cells to communicate with their immediate neighbors via secretion of signaling molecules. The signal only triggers a response in nearby target cells as the signal molecules degrade quickly or are inactivated by nearby cells if not taken up. Prominent examples of paracrine signaling include nitric oxide signaling in blood vessels, synaptic signaling of neurons, the blood clotting system, tissue repair/wound healing, and local allergic skin reactions. One of the essential paracrine signaling molecules is the gas nitric oxide (NO). Nitric oxide is produced by a family of enzymes known as nitric oxide synthases. Blood vessels contain several layers of cells. The innermost layer of cells is the endothelium. Endothelial cells have nitric oxide synthase, which produces nitric oxide that diffuses in all directions. The nitric oxide that reaches the blood does not contribute to signaling but immediately reacts with biochemicals, such as hemoglobin. Nitric oxide molecules that diffuse in the opposite direction, towards the next layer of the blood vessel, participate in some important signaling. The layer just exterior to the endothelium is made up of smooth muscle cells. The function of smooth muscle cells is to contract. When these cells contract, they clamp down on the blood vessel, narrowing its diameter and consequently rais

 Core: Cell Signaling

Evaluation of Vascular Control Mechanisms Utilizing Video Microscopy of Isolated Resistance Arteries of Rats

1Department of Physical Therapy, Marquette University, 2Medical College of Wisconsin, 3Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 4Graduate Programs of Nurse Anesthesia, Texas Wesleyan University, 5Office of Research, Medical College of Wisconsin

JoVE 56133

 Medicine

Supramaximal Intensity Hypoxic Exercise and Vascular Function Assessment in Mice

1Division of Angiology, Heart and Vessel Department, Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV), 2Institute of Sport Sciences, Faculty of Biology and Medicine, University of Lausanne, 3Neonatal Research Laboratory, Clinic of Neonatology, Department Woman-Mother-Child, Lausanne University Hospital

JoVE 58708

 Behavior

Ischemic Tissue Injury in the Dorsal Skinfold Chamber of the Mouse: A Skin Flap Model to Investigate Acute Persistent Ischemia

1Department of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, 2Department of Plastic, Reconstructive, Aesthetic and Hand Surgery, University Hospital of Basel, 3Institute for Clinical and Experimental Surgery, University of Saarland, 4Division of Plastic and Hand Surgery, University Hospital Zurich

JoVE 51900

 Medicine

Gene Expression Analysis of Endothelial Cells Exposed to Shear Stress Using Multiple Parallel-plate Flow Chambers

1Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, 2Keenan Research Centre in the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael's Hospital, 3Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, 4Department of Medicine, University of Toronto

JoVE 58478

 Bioengineering

Vasodilation of Isolated Vessels and the Isolation of the Extracellular Matrix of Tight-skin Mice

1Department of Anesthesiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 2Clement J. Zablocki Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 3Department of Surgery, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Children's Research Institute, 4Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, 5Deptarment of Anesthesiology, Clement J Zblocki Veteran Affairs Medical Center, 6Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Medical College of Wisconsin

JoVE 55036

 Immunology and Infection

Characterization of Sickling During Controlled Automated Deoxygenation with Oxygen Gradient Ektacytometry

1Laboratory of Clinical Chemistry and Hematology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, 2Van Creveldkliniek, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, 3Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Baylor College of Medicine

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 60213

 JoVE In-Press

Meso-Scale Particle Image Velocimetry Studies of Neurovascular Flows In Vitro

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Riverside, 2Division of Interventional Neuroradiology, University of California, Los Angeles, 3Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, Riverside, 4Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Riverside

JoVE 58902

 Bioengineering

Protein Kinase C-delta Inhibitor Peptide Formulation using Gold Nanoparticles

1Latner Thoracic Surgery Research Laboratories, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, 2Respiratory Medicine Research Laboratory, Institute of Translation Medicine, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 3Institute of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto

JoVE 58741

 Bioengineering

Extraction and Purification of Polyphenols from Freeze-dried Berry Powder for the Treatment of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells In Vitro

1Department of Dietetics and Nutrition, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 2Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences, Florida State University, 3Center for Advancing Exercise and Nutrition Research on Aging (CAENRA), Florida State University

JoVE 55605

 Chemistry

Application of Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Nitric Oxide (NO•) Probes, the geNOps, for Real-time Imaging of NO• Signals in Single Cells

1Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Medical University of Graz

JoVE 55486

 Biology

Mouse Model for Pancreas Transplantation Using a Modified Cuff Technique

1Center of Operative Medicine, Department of Visceral, Transplant and Thoracic Surgery, Medical University Innsbruck, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Medical University Innsbruck, 4Department of Cardiac Surgery, Medical University Innsbruck, 3Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation (VCA) Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

JoVE 54998

 Medicine

Ultrasound Assessment of Flow-Mediated Dilation of the Brachial and Superficial Femoral Arteries in Rats

1Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah, 2Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, University of Texas at Austin, 3Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, University of Utah, 4Department of Biochemistry, University of Utah, 5Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Utah, 6Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center, Department of Veterans Affairs

JoVE 54762

 Medicine

The Assembly and Application of 'Shear Rings': A Novel Endothelial Model for Orbital, Unidirectional and Periodic Fluid Flow and Shear Stress

1Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center in Shreveport, 2Biological Sciences, Louisiana Tech University, 3Neurology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center in Shreveport, 4Institut Cochin, Inserm U1016, Cnrs Umr8104, Université Paris Descartes

JoVE 54632

 Biology
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