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Normal Distribution: Continuous frequency distribution of infinite range. Its properties are as follows: 1, continuous, symmetrical distribution with both tails extending to infinity; 2, arithmetic mean, mode, and median identical; and 3, shape completely determined by the mean and standard deviation.

Drosophila Courtship Conditioning As a Measure of Learning and Memory

1Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Medical Center, 2Radboud Institute of Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University, 3Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behaviour, Centre for Neuroscience, Radboud University, 4Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Vienna, Austria, 5Department for Health Evidence, Radboud University Medical Center, 6Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 7Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, 8Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Western University

JoVE 55808


 Neuroscience

Visualization Method for Proprioceptive Drift on a 2D Plane Using Support Vector Machine

1Applied Brain Science Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2Department of Informatics, Graduate School of Informatics and Engineering, The University of Electro-Communications, 3Department of Media and Image Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo Polytechnic University

JoVE 53970


 Behavior

The Precision of Visual Working Memory with Delayed Estimation

JoVE 10020

Source: Laboratory of Jonathan Flombaum—Johns Hopkins University

Human memory is limited. Throughout most of its history, experimental psychology has focused on investigating the discrete, quantitative limits of memory—how many individual pieces of information a person can remember. Recently, experimental psychologists have also become interested in more qualitative limits—how precisely is information stored? The concept of memory precision can be both intuitive and elusive at once. It is intuitive, for example, to think a person can remember precisely how their mother sounds, making it possible to recognize one’s mother immediately over the phone or in a crowd. But how can one quantify the precision of such a memory? Exactly how similar is the memory to the voice itself? To study the precision of memory and working memory, in particular, experimental psychologists have devised a paradigm known as delayed estimation. It has been used most often, thus far, to study the precision of visual memories, especially memory for color, and to understand how memory degrades the more one tries to remember at once. This video demonstrates standard procedures for investigating the precision of color working memory using delayed estim


 Cognitive Psychology

Single and Two-phase Flow in a Packed Bed Reactor

JoVE 10431

Source: Kerry M. Dooley and Michael G. Benton, Department of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA

The goal of this experiment is to determine the magnitude of maldistribution in typical packed bed reactors in both single phase and two-phase (gas-liquid) flow and evaluate the effects of this maldistribution on pressure drop. The concepts of residence time distribution and dispersion are introduced through the use of tracers, and these concepts are related to physical maldistribution. Channeling in a single-phase flow can occur along walls or by preferential flow through a larger portion of the bed cross-section. Channeling in two-phase flow can result from even more complex causes, and simple two-phase flow theories seldom predict pressure drops in packed beds. A design goal is always to minimize the extent of channeling by finding the optimal bed and particle diameters for the design flow rates and by packing a bed in a way to minimize settling. It is always important to quantify how much maldistribution might occur and to over-design the unit to account for its occurrence. The permeameter apparatus measures pressure drop, ΔP, and the concentration of tracer (dye) exiting horizontal packed beds of armored glass for either water,


 Chemical Engineering

The Neuromuscular Junction: Measuring Synapse Size, Fragmentation and Changes in Synaptic Protein Density Using Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy

1Physiology and Bosch Institute, University of Sydney, 2Motor Neuron Disease Research Group, Australian School of Advanced Medicine, Macquarie University, 3Advanced Microscopy Facility, Bosch Institute, University of Sydney

JoVE 52220


 Neuroscience

Systematic Assessment of Well-Being in Mice for Procedures Using General Anesthesia

1Institute of Animal Welfare, Animal Behavior and Laboratory Animal Science, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Freie Universität Berlin, 2Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Freie Universität Berlin, 3German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), 4Unit of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Experimental Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Veterinary Medicine

JoVE 57046


 Behavior

Leveraging CyVerse Resources for De Novo Comparative Transcriptomics of Underserved (Non-model) Organisms

1BIO5 Institute, University of Arizona, 2The School of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, 3Genetics GIDP, University of Arizona, 4Biology Department, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 5School of Animal and Comparative Biomedical Sciences, University of Arizona, 6CyVerse, University of Arizona

JoVE 55009


 Genetics

Simple and Effective Administration and Visualization of Microparticles in the Circulatory System of Small Fishes Using Kidney Injection

1Institute of Biology at Irkutsk State University, 2Institute of Biology at Karelian Research Centre of Russian Academy of Sciences, 3Baikal Research Centre, 4Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, Agency for Science, Technology, and Research (A*STAR), 5University of Oulu, Optoelectronics and Measurement Techniques Laboratory

JoVE 57491


 Biology

A Model to Simulate Clinically Relevant Hypoxia in Humans

1Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital of Bonn, 2Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Bonn, 3Institute for Terrestrial and Aquatic Wildlife Research, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, 4Institute of Physiology 2, University of Bonn

JoVE 54933


 Medicine

A High Content Imaging Assay for Identification of Botulinum Neurotoxin Inhibitors

1Perkin Elmer Inc., 2Henry M. Jackson Foundation, 3The Geneva Foundation, 4ORISE, 5Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, 6Division of Molecular and Translational Sciences, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, 7DoD Biotechnology High Performance Computing Software Applications Institute (BHSAI), Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC), US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC)

JoVE 51915


 Neuroscience

Invasive Hemodynamic Characterization of the Portal-hypertensive Syndrome in Cirrhotic Rats

1Div. of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Dept. of Internal Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 2Vienna Hepatic Hemodynamic Laboratory, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 3Center of Biomedical Research, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

JoVE 57261


 Medicine

Immunoglobulin Gene Sequence Analysis In Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: From Patient Material To Sequence Interpretation

1Institute of Applied Biosciences, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, 2Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, 3Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, 4Department of Immunology, Laboratory for Medical Immunology, Erasmus University Medical Center, 5Hematology Department, Nikea General Hospital, 6Assistance publique - Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Hopital Pitié-Salpêtrière, Department of Hematology, and UPMC University Paris 06, UMRS 1138, 7Division of Experimental Oncology, IRCCS Istituto Scientifico San Raffaele and Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 57787


 JoVE In-Press

Analysis of Cell Suspensions Isolated from Solid Tissues by Spectral Flow Cytometry

1Flow Cytometry Core Facility, Center for Translational Research-Technical Core, Institut Pasteur, 2Unit for Lymphopoiesis, Immunology Department, INSERM U1223, University Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Cellule Pasteur, Institut Pasteur, 3Stem-Cell Microenvironments in Repair/Regeneration Team, Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde (i3s), INEB - Instituto de Engenharia Biomédica, 4ICBAS - Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar, Universidade do Porto, 5Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine Team, UMRS 1166, ICAN - Institute of Cardiometabolism And Nutrition, UPMC - Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6, INSERM

JoVE 55578


 Biology

Using the BLT Humanized Mouse as a Stem Cell based Gene Therapy Tumor Model

1Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology-Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 2UCLA AIDS Institute, 3Eli & Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCLA, 4Department of Medical and Molecular Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 5Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA

JoVE 4181


 Immunology and Infection

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