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Optic Chiasm: The X-shaped structure formed by the meeting of the two optic nerves. At the optic chiasm the fibers from the medial part of each retina cross to project to the other side of the brain while the lateral retinal fibers continue on the same side. As a result each half of the brain receives information about the contralateral visual field from both eyes.

Induction of Paralysis and Visual System Injury in Mice by T Cells Specific for Neuromyelitis Optica Autoantigen Aquaporin-4

1Department of Neurology, University of California, 2Program in Immunology, University of California, 3Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, 4Department of Pathology, Stanford University

JoVE 56185


 Immunology and Infection

Sterile Tissue Harvest

JoVE 10298

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

In 1959 The 3 R's were introduced by W.M.S. Russell and R.L. Burch in their book The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. The 3 R's are replacement, reduction, and refinement of the use of animals in research.1 The use of cell lines and tissue cultures that originated from research animals is a replacement technique, as it allows for many experiments to be conducted in vitro. Harvesting tissues and organs for use in cell and tissue cultures requires aseptic technique to avoid contamination of the tissues. Sterile harvest is also necessary for protein and RNA analysis and metabolic profiling of tissues. This manuscript will discuss the process of sterile organ harvest in rats and mice.


 Lab Animal Research

Cell Sorting of Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells from the Adult Mouse Subventricular Zone and Live-imaging of their Cell Cycle Dynamics

1CEA DSV iRCM SCSR, Laboratoire de Radiopathologie, UMR 967, 2INSERM, UMR 967, 3Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, UMR 967, 4Université Paris Sud, UMR 967, 5CNRS, Université Paris Sud, UMR 9197, Neuroscience Paris-Saclay Institute, Molecules Circuits Department

JoVE 53247


 Neuroscience

Murine In Utero Electroporation

JoVE 5208

In utero electroporation is an important technique for studying the molecular mechanisms that guide the proliferation, differentiation, migration, and maturation of cells during neural development. Electroporation enables the rapid and targeted delivery of material into cells by utilizing electrical pulses to create transient pores in cell membranes. Although electroporation has traditionally been used in in vitro studies, scientific advancements have now broadened its utilization to intact organs, such as those found in mouse embryos developing in utero. This video will introduce the key principles behind in utero electroporation in addition to reviewing the basic surgical techniques required to access developing embryos within a pregnant rodent. Details of the injection and electroporation steps are provided along with important considerations for directing gene delivery to specific brain regions. Finally, neurobiological applications of in utero electroporation are presented, such as investigating how specific genes contribute to neural development and how connections form between developing neurons.


 Neuroscience

Dissection and Culture of Commissural Neurons from Embryonic Spinal Cord

1Molecular Biology of Neural Development, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montréal, 2Division of Experimental Medicine and Program in Neuroengineering, McGill University, 3Program in Neuroengineering, McGill University, 4Montreal Neurological Institute, 5Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, McGill University, 6Department of Biology, McGill University, 7Department of Medicine, Universite de Montreal - University of Montreal

JoVE 1773


 Neuroscience

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Partial Optic Nerve Transection in Rats: A Model Established with a New Operative Approach to Assess Secondary Degeneration of Retinal Ganglion Cells

1Aier School of Ophthalmology, Central South University, Changsha, China, 2Institute of Immunology, Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Beijing, China, 3Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University; Beijing Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences Key Laboratory, Beijing, China, 4Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University; Beijing Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences Key Laboratory, Beijing, China

JoVE 56272


 Neuroscience

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Using Retinal Imaging to Study Dementia

1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2Department of Medicine & Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 3Therese Pei Fong Chow Research Centre for Prevention of Dementia, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 4Gerald Choa Neuroscience Centre, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 5Memory Aging and Cognition Centre, National University Health System, 6Department of Pharmacology, National University of Singapore, 7Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, 8Duke-NUS Medical School, National University of Singapore

JoVE 56137


 Medicine

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In vivo Optogenetic Stimulation of the Rodent Central Nervous System

1Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, 2Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, 3Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 4Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University, 5Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University

JoVE 51483


 Neuroscience

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Studying Diabetes Through the Eyes of a Fish: Microdissection, Visualization, and Analysis of the Adult tg(fli:EGFP) Zebrafish Retinal Vasculature

1Department of Vascular Biology and Tumorangiogenesis, Center for Biomedicine and Medical Technology Mannheim (CBTM), Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, 2V. Medical Clinic, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56674


 JoVE In-Press

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Local Field Fluorescence Microscopy: Imaging Cellular Signals in Intact Hearts

1School of Natural Sciences, University of California, Merced, 2Centro de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares, Universidad de la Plata and Conicet, 3Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Entre Rios, 4Department of Physiology, Midwestern University, 5School of Engineering, University of California, Merced

JoVE 55202


 Biology

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In vivo Imaging of Optic Nerve Fiber Integrity by Contrast-Enhanced MRI in Mice

1Hans Berger Department of Neurology, Jena University Hospital, 2Immunology, Leibniz Institute for Age Research, Fritz Lipmann Institute, Jena, 3Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Medical Physics Group, Jena University Hospital

JoVE 51274


 Neuroscience

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Cranial Nerves Exam I (I-VI)

JoVE 10091

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

During each section of the neurological testing, the examiner uses the powers of observation to assess the patient. In some cases, cranial nerve dysfunction is readily apparent: a patient might mention a characteristic chief complaint (such as loss of smell or diplopia), or a visually evident physical sign of cranial nerve involvement, such as in facial nerve palsy. However, in many cases a patient's history doesn't directly suggest cranial nerve pathologies, as some of them (such as sixth nerve palsy) may have subtle manifestations and can only be uncovered by a careful neurological exam. Importantly, a variety of pathological conditions that are associated with alterations in mental status (such as some neurodegenerative disorders or brain lesions) can also cause cranial nerve dysfunction; therefore, any abnormal findings during a mental status exam should prompt a careful and complete neurological exam. The cranial nerve examination is applied neuroanatomy. The cranial nerves are symmetrical; therefore, while performing the examination, the examiner should compare each side to the other. A physician should approach the examination in a


 Physical Examinations III

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Isolation of Primary Murine Retinal Ganglion Cells (RGCs) by Flow Cytometry

1Department of Ophthalmology, Hamilton Eye Institute, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 2Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biochemistry, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 3Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 4Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tennessee Health Science Center

JoVE 55785


 Bioengineering

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