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Organ of Corti: The spiral Epithelium containing sensory Auditory hair cells and supporting cells in the cochlea. Organ of Corti, situated on the Basilar membrane and overlaid by a gelatinous Tectorial membrane, converts sound-induced mechanical waves to neural impulses to the brain.

Hair Cells

JoVE 10854

Hair cells are the sensory receptors of the auditory system—they transduce mechanical sound waves into electrical energy that the nervous system can understand. Hair cells are located in the organ of Corti within the cochlea of the inner ear, between the basilar and tectorial membranes. The actual sensory receptors are called inner hair cells. The outer hair cells serve other functions, such as sound amplification in the cochlea, and are not discussed in detail here. Hair cells are named after the hair-like stereocilia that protrude from their tops and touch the tectorial membrane. The stereocilia are arranged by height and are attached by thin filaments called tip links. The tip links are connected to stretch-activated cation channels on the tips of the stereocilia. When a sound wave vibrates the basilar membrane, it creates a shearing force between the basilar and tectorial membranes that moves the hair cell stereocilia from side to side. When the cilia are displaced towards the tallest cilium, the tip links stretch, opening the cation channels. Potassium (K+) then flows into the cell, because there is a very high concentration of K+ in the fluid outside of the stereocilia. This large voltage difference creates an electrochemical gradient that causes an influx of K+ once the channels are opened. This influx o

 Core: Sensory Systems

Hearing

JoVE 10853

When we hear a sound, our nervous system is detecting sound waves—pressure waves of mechanical energy traveling through a medium. The frequency of the wave is perceived as pitch, while the amplitude is perceived as loudness.

Sound waves are collected by the external ear and amplified as they travel through the ear canal. When sounds reach the junction between the outer and middle ear, they vibrate the tympanic membrane—the eardrum. The resulting mechanical energy causes the attached ossicles—a set of small bones in the middle ear—to move. The ossicles vibrate the oval window, the outermost part of the inner ear. In the labyrinth of the inner ear, the sound wave energy is transferred to the cochlea—a coiled structure in the inner ear—causing the fluid within it to move. The cochlea contains receptors that transduce mechanical sound waves into electrical signals that can be interpreted by the brain. Sounds within the hearing range vibrate the basilar membrane in the cochlea and are detected by hair cells on the organ of Corti, the site of transduction. Along the primary auditory pathway, the signals are sent through the auditory nerve to the cochlear nuclei in the brainstem. From here, they travel to the inferior colliculus of the midbrain and up to the thalamus, and then to the primary auditory cortex. Along this pat

 Core: Sensory Systems

A Comparative Study of Drug Delivery Methods Targeted to the Mouse Inner Ear: Bullostomy Versus Transtympanic Injection

1Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas (IIBm) Alberto Sols CSIC-UAM, 2Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), 3Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria La Paz (IdiPAZ), 4Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 5Departmento de Otorrino laringología, Hospital Universitario La Paz

JoVE 54951

 Biology

Three-dimensional Organotypic Cultures of Vestibular and Auditory Sensory Organs

1Department of Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, 2Caruso Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, 3Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Laboratory of Sensory Neuroscience, The Rockefeller University

JoVE 57527

 Developmental Biology

Characterization of the Interaction of Primary Cells from the Rat Inner Ear with Polymer Films As Coatings for Cochlear Implant Electrode Surface

1Institute of Neuroanatomy and Cell Biology, Hannover Medical School, 2Institute for Technical Chemistry, University of Technology Braunschweig, 3Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hannover Medical School

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56792

 JoVE In-Press

Auditory Brainstem Response and Outer Hair Cell Whole-cell Patch Clamp Recording in Postnatal Rats

1Department of Physiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Southern Medical University, 2School of Basic Medical Sciences, Guizhou Medical University, 3Department of Laboratory Medicines, Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Region, Southern Medical University, 4Experiment Teaching Center, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Southern Medical University

JoVE 56678

 Neuroscience

Optogenetic Stimulation of the Auditory Nerve

1InnerEarLab, Department of Otolaryngology, University Medical Center Goettingen, 2Bernstein Focus for Neurotechnology, University of Goettingen, 3Auditory Systems Physiology Group, Department of Otolaryngology, University Medical Center Goettingen, 4Center for Nanoscale Microscopy and Molecular Physiology of the Brain, University of Goettingen, 5Department of Chemical, Electronic, and Biomedical Engineering, University of Guanajuato

JoVE 52069

 Neuroscience
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