1Department of Dentistry, Aarhus University
Immunology and Infection
1Department of General Practice, School of Dentistry, Virginia Commonwealth University, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, 3Department of Periodontics, School of Dentistry, Virginia Commonwealth University
1Department of Medicine, Solna and CMM, Respiratory Medicine Unit, Karolinska Institutet, 2Safety Science, Global Regulator Affairs & Patient Safety, AstraZeneca Global Medicines Development
Immunology and Infection
Source: Yong P. Chen, PhD, Department of Physics & Astronomy, College of Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
This experiment demonstrates how current is distributed in resistors connected in series or parallel, and thus describes how to calculate the total "effective" resistance. Using Ohm's law, it possible to convert between the voltage and current through a resistance, if the resistance is known.
For two resistors connected in series, (meaning that they are wired one after the other), the same current will flow through them. The voltages will add up to a "total voltage", and thus, the total "effective resistance" is the sum of the two resistances. This is sometimes called a "voltage divider" because the total voltage is divided between the two resistors in proportion to their individual resistances.
For two resistors connected in parallel, (meaning that they are both wired between two shared terminals), the current is split between the two while they share the same voltage. In this case, the reciprocal of the total effective resistance will equal the sum of the reciprocals of the two resistances.
Series and parallel resistors are a key component to most circuits and influence how electricity…
1Department of Surgery and Surgical Specialties, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Policlinico di Modena, 2Department of Clinical Microbiology, Universtity of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 3Sanypet S.p.a, 4AIRMO Center Milan
1Sustainable Transport Unit, Institute for Energy, Transport and Climate, Joint Research Centre
1GIGA-Neurosciences, Quartier Hôpital,
1Division of Computer-assisted Restorative Dentistry, Center of Dental Medicine, University of Zürich
1Bioenergy and Catalysis Laboratory (LBK), Energy and Environment Research Division (ENE), Paul Scherrer Institute, 2Environmental Engineering Institute (IIE), School of Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering (ENAC), École; Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 3Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science ETH Zurich
1Department of Physics 0374, University of California, San Diego, 2Department of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Centre de Recherche de l’Université Laval Robert-Giffard
1Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Department of Pathology, Queen's University, 2Ask Science Products Inc.
1Laboratoire des Multimatériaux et Interfaces, UMR CNRS 5615, Université Lyon1, 2UFR d'Odontologie, Université Lyon1; Service de Consultations et de Traitements Dentaires, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 3UFR d'Odontologie, Université Paris Diderot; Service d'Odontologie, APHP, Hôpital Rothschild
1Department of Neurosciences, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 2Epilepsy Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 3Department of Neurosciences and Center for Neurological Restoration, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University
Robert M. Rioux & Zhifeng Chen, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA
The most common laboratory emergencies include chemical spills, fire or explosion, electric shock, and personnel injuries. Most laboratory accidents occur due to poor planning or lack of attention. Therefore, it's always better to prevent accidents (being proactive) than having to take any actions during an emergency (being reactive). For example, always wear proper personal protective equipment (PPE) in the laboratory. Regular laboratory inspection and equipment maintenance is beneficial to prevent laboratory accidents. However, once the emergency occurs, it's also essential to know what to do. Ensure your personal safety first and then call local emergency responders, when and if necessary. The extent of your response will depend on the seriousness of the incident and documented laboratory protocols for dealing with such incidents. Stay calm and take proper actions according to the type and level of emergency.…