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Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)

Gas Exchange and Transport

JoVE 10884

Gas exchange, the intake of molecular oxygen (O2) from the environment and the outflow of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the environment, is necessary for cellular function. Gas exchange during respiration occurs largely via the movement of gas molecules along pressure gradients. Gas travels from areas of higher partial pressure to areas of lower partial pressure. In mammals, gas exchange occurs in the alveoli of the lungs, which are adjacent to capillaries and share a membrane with them. When the lungs expand, the resultant decrease in pressure relative to the atmosphere draws oxygen into the lungs. Air entering the lungs from the environment has a higher oxygen concentration and a lower carbon dioxide concentration than the oxygen-depleted blood that travels from the heart to the lungs. Thus, oxygen diffuses from the alveoli to the blood in the capillaries, where it can be delivered to tissue. Carbon dioxide, by contrast, diffuses from the capillaries to the alveoli, where it can be expelled through exhalation. Gas flow is determined by the pressure gradient of each gas, with each gas moving down its gradient. The pressure exerted by an individual gas in a mixture of gases is its partial pressure, and each gas moves from a higher to a lower partial pressure. Thus, the movement of O2 and CO2 are not directly related

 Core: Circulatory and Pulmonary Systems

Gas Absorber

JoVE 10436

Source: Michael G. Benton and Kerry M. Dooley, Department of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA


Gas absorbers are used to remove contaminants from gas streams. Multiple designs are used to accomplish this objective1. A packed bed column uses gas and liquid streams running counter to each other in a column…

 Chemical Engineering

Le Châtelier's Principle

JoVE 10138

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Lynne O'Connell — Boston College


When the conditions of a system at equilibrium are altered, the system responds in such a way as to maintain the equilibrium. In 1888, Henri-Lewis Le Châtelier described this phenomenon in a principle that states, "When a change in temperature, pressure, or…

 General Chemistry

Synthesis Of A Ti(III) Metallocene Using Schlenk Line Technique

JoVE 10428

Source: Tamara M. Powers, Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University 


Inorganic chemists often work with highly air- and water-sensitive compounds. The two most common and practical methods for air-free synthesis utilize either Schlenk lines or gloveboxes. This experiment will demonstrate how to perform simple manipulations on…

 Inorganic Chemistry

Degassing Liquids with Freeze-Pump-Thaw Cycling

JoVE 5639

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Neil Branda — Simon Fraser University


Degassing refers to the process by which dissolved gases are removed from a liquid. The presence of dissolved gases such as oxygen or carbon dioxide can impede chemical reactions that utilize sensitive reagents, interfere with spectroscopic measurements, or can…

 Organic Chemistry

Normothermic Ex Situ Heart Perfusion in Working Mode: Assessment of Cardiac Function and Metabolism

1Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta, 2Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta, 4Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Alberta, 5Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Alberta, 6Canadian National Transplant Research Program, 7Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta

JoVE 58430

 Medicine

Making Record-efficiency SnS Solar Cells by Thermal Evaporation and Atomic Layer Deposition

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2Laboratory for Manufacturing and Productivity, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 3School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 4Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 5Department of Chemistry & Chemical Biology, Harvard University

JoVE 52705

 Engineering

Fabrication of Gate-tunable Graphene Devices for Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Studies with Coulomb Impurities

1Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, 2Department of Chemistry, University of California at Berkeley, 3Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, 4National Institute for Materials Science (Japan), 5Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 6Kavli Energy NanoSciences Institute, University of California at Berkeley and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

JoVE 52711

 Engineering

In Vivo EPR Assessment of pH, pO2, Redox Status, and Concentrations of Phosphate and Glutathione in the Tumor Microenvironment

1In Vivo Multifunctional Magnetic Resonance center, Robert C. Byrd Health Sciences Center, West Virginia University, 2Department of Biochemistry, West Virginia University School of Medicine, 3Department of Microbiology, Immunology & Cell Biology, West Virginia University School of Medicine

JoVE 56624

 Cancer Research

A Rapidly Incremented Tethered-Swimming Maximal Protocol for Cardiorespiratory Assessment of Swimmers

1Department of Physical Education, São Paulo State University (UNESP) at Bauru, 2Institute of Bioscience, Graduate Program in Human Development and Technology, São Paulo State University (UNESP) at Rio Claro, 3Ciper, Faculdade de Motricidade Humana, Universidade de Lisboa, 4Department of Science and Technology, School of Education, Polytechnic Institute of Setúbal, 5CDP2T - Center for Product Development and Technology Transfer, Polytechnic Institute of Setúbal, 6Universidade Europeia, 7Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Bone Disease, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 8Department of Biobehavioral Sciences, Teachers College, Columbia University

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 60630

 JoVE In-Press

Integration of Brain Tissue Saturation Monitoring in Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Patients with Heart Failure

1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, 2Healthy Aging Research Center, Chang Gung University, 3School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, 4Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, 5National Quemoy University, 6Kinmen Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare

JoVE 60289

 Medicine

Theoretical Calculation and Experimental Verification for Dislocation Reduction in Germanium Epitaxial Layers with Semicylindrical Voids on Silicon

1Department of Materials Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 3Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58897

 JoVE In-Press

Convection Enhanced Delivery of Optogenetic Adeno-associated Viral Vector to the Cortex of Rhesus Macaque Under Guidance of Online MRI Images

1Departments of Bioengineering, University of Washington, 2Washington National Primate Research Center, 3Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Washington, 4Department of Physiology and Center for Integrative Neuroscience, University of California, San Francisco

JoVE 59232

 Neuroscience

Measuring and Interpreting Oxygen Consumption Rates in Whole Fly Head Segments

1Munich Center of Integrated Protein Science and Biomedical Center, Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich, 2Laboratory for Metabolism and Epigenetics in Aging, Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN), 3German Mouse Clinic, Helmholtz Zentrum Munich, German Research Center for Environment and Health (GmbH), 4German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), 5Chair of Experimental Genetics, School of Life Science Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 6Laboratory for Metabolism and Epigenetics in Brain Aging, Institute of Neuroregeneration & Neurorehabilitation of Qingdao University, 7Molecular Biology Division, Biomedical Center, Faculty of Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich

JoVE 58601

 Biochemistry

Neurovascular Network Explorer 2.0: A Simple Tool for Exploring and Sharing a Database of Optogenetically-evoked Vasomotion in Mouse Cortex In Vivo

1Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, 2Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, 3Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, 4Department of Physics, John Carroll University, 5Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, 6Bioengineering Undergraduate Program, University of California, San Diego, 7Institute of Physical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, 8Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School

JoVE 57214

 Neuroscience

Metabolic Support of Excised, Living Brain Tissues During Magnetic Resonance Microscopy Acquisition

1Department of Neuroscience, University of Florida, 2McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, 4Center for Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus University, 5Department of Radiology, University of Florida, 6National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University

JoVE 56282

 Bioengineering

Assessment of Pulmonary Capillary Blood Volume, Membrane Diffusing Capacity, and Intrapulmonary Arteriovenous Anastomoses During Exercise

1Division of Pulmonary Medicine, University of Alberta, 2Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, University of Alberta, 3Divisions of Critical Care and Cardiology, University of Alberta, 4Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Alberta, 5G.F. MacDonald Centre for Lung Health

JoVE 54949

 Medicine

A Model to Simulate Clinically Relevant Hypoxia in Humans

1Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital of Bonn, 2Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Bonn, 3Institute for Terrestrial and Aquatic Wildlife Research, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, 4Institute of Physiology 2, University of Bonn

JoVE 54933

 Medicine
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