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Pathology Department, Hospital: Hospital department which administers and provides pathology services.

Clinical-oriented Three-dimensional Gait Analysis Method for Evaluating Gait Disorder

1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, School of Medicine, Fujita Health University, 2Faculty of Rehabilitation, School of Health Science, Fujita Health University, 3Department of Rehabilitation, Fujita Health University Hospital, 4Department of Advanced Rehabilitation Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine

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JoVE 57063


 JoVE In-Press

Cardiac Exam III: Abnormal Heart Sounds

JoVE 10135

Source: Suneel Dhand, MD, Attending Physician, Internal Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Having a fundamental understanding of normal heart sounds is the first step toward distinguishing the normal from the abnormal. Murmurs are sounds that represent turbulent and abnormal blood flow across a heart valve. They are caused either by stenosis (valve area too narrow) or regurgitation (backflow of blood across the valve) and are commonly heard as a "swishing" sound during auscultation. Murmurs are graded from 1 to 6 in intensity (1 being the softest and 6 the loudest) (Figure 1). The most common cardiac murmurs heard are left-sided murmurs of the aortic and mitral valves. Right-sided murmurs of the pulmonary and tricuspid valves are less common. Murmurs are typically heard loudest at the anatomical area that corresponds with the valvular pathology. Frequently, they also radiate to other areas. Figure 1. The Levine scale used to grade murmur intensity. In addition to the two main heart sounds, S1 and S2, which are normally produced by the closing of heart valves, there are two other abnormal heart sounds, known as S3 and S4. These are also known as


 Physical Examinations I

Experimental Glaucoma Induced by Ocular Injection of Magnetic Microspheres

1Ocular Biology and Therapeutics, University College London Institute of Ophthalmology, 2University College London Institue of Ophthalmology, 3Moorfields Eye Hospital, 4NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Moorfields Eye Hospital, 5Schepens Eye Research Institute, Harvard Medical School, 6Hoffman-La Roche

JoVE 52400


 Medicine

Isolation of Cerebrospinal Fluid from Rodent Embryos for use with Dissected Cerebral Cortical Explants

1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, 2Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, Institute for Neuroscience, The George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, 3Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, 4Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston Children's Hospital, 5Department of Pathology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School

JoVE 50333


 Neuroscience

Investigating the Function of Deep Cortical and Subcortical Structures Using Stereotactic Electroencephalography: Lessons from the Anterior Cingulate Cortex

1Department of Neurosurgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital, 2Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital, 3Columbia University Medical Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital, 4School of Medicine, King's College London

JoVE 52773


 Neuroscience

Cardiac Exam I: Inspection and Palpation

JoVE 10071

Source: Suneel Dhand, MD, Attending Physician, Internal Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

The cardiac assessment is one of the core examinations performed by almost every physician whenever encountering a patient. Disorders of the cardiac system are among the most common reasons for hospital admission, with conditions ranging from myocardial infarction to congestive heart failure. Learning a complete and thorough cardiac examination is therefore crucial for any practicing physician. If there is pathology in the heart or circulatory system, the consequences can also be manifested in other bodily areas, including the lungs, abdomen, and legs. Many physicians instinctively reach straight for their stethoscopes when performing cardiac exams. However, a large amount of information is gained before auscultation by going through the correct sequence of examination, starting with inspection and palpation.


 Physical Examinations I

Isolation of CD146+ Resident Lung Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Rat Lungs

1Sinclair Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, 2University of Ottawa, 3Department of Neonatology and Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Medical Faculty and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, 4DFG Research Center and Cluster of Excellence for Regenerative Therapies (CRTD), Technische Universität, Dresden, 5Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute

JoVE 53782


 Biology

A Brain Tumor/Organotypic Slice Co-culture System for Studying Tumor Microenvironment and Targeted Drug Therapies

1Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 2Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital, 3Department of Biostatistics & Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 4Department of Developmental Biology and Cancer Research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 5Department of Neurosurgery, Children's Hospital, 6Center for Molecular Oncologic Pathology, Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute

JoVE 53304


 Medicine

A Standardized Approach for Multispecies Purification of Mammalian Male Germ Cells by Mechanical Tissue Dissociation and Flow Cytometry

1Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, 2Graduate Program in Areas of Basic and Applied Biology (GABBA), Abel Salazar Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Porto, 3Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, University of Porto, 4IPATIMUP - Instituto de Patologia e Imunologia Molecular da Universidade do Porto, 5Department of Pathology & Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine

JoVE 55913


 Developmental Biology

A Model of Free Tissue Transfer: The Rat Epigastric Free Flap

1Anatomy Department, NOVA Medical School, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, 2Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Department and Burn Unit, Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Central - Hospital de São José, 3UCIBIO, Life Sciences Department, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, 4CEDOC, NOVA Medical School, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, 5Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, LIBPhys, 6Pathology Department, Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Central – Hospital de São José

JoVE 55281


 Medicine

The Use of Reverse Phase Protein Arrays (RPPA) to Explore Protein Expression Variation within Individual Renal Cell Cancers

1Edinburgh Urological Cancer Group, University of Edinburgh, 2School of Medicine, University of St Andrews, 3Division of Pathology, University of Edinburgh, 4MRC Human Genetics Unit, MRC IGMM, University of Edinburgh, 5Department of Pathology, Western General Hospital, 6Breakthrough Breast Cancer Research Unit, University of Edinburgh, 7St Bartholomew's Cancer Institute, Experimental Cancer Medicine Centre, Queen Mary University of London

JoVE 50221


 Medicine

Isolation of Human Islets from Partially Pancreatectomized Patients

1Department of GI-, Thorax- and Vascular Surgery, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, University of Technology Dresden, 2Molecular Diabetology, Paul Langerhans Institute Dresden, 3Department of Pathology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, University of Technology Dresden

JoVE 2962


 Medicine

New Application of an Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet as a Neuro-protective Agent Against Glucose Deprivation-induced Injury of SH-SY5Y Cells

1Department of Pathophysiology, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute/Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, 2School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, 3Beijing Key Laboratory of Central Nervous System Injury, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, 4Beijing Key Laboratory of Translational Medicine for Cerebrovascular Disease, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, 5China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University

JoVE 56323


 Engineering

Limbal Approach-Subretinal Injection of Viral Vectors for Gene Therapy in Mice Retinal Pigment Epithelium

1Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 2FARB Laboratory, Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, 3College of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University College of Medicine

JoVE 53030


 Neuroscience

Rapid Identification of Gram Negative Bacteria from Blood Culture Broth Using MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry

1Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Laboratory Services, Institute of Clinical Pathology and Medical Research, Westmead Hospital, 2Centre for Research Excellence in Critical Infection, Westmead Millennium Institute, Westmead Hospital, 3Sydney Emerging Infectious Diseases Institute, University of Sydney, Westmead Hospital

JoVE 51663


 Immunology and Infection

Respiratory Exam I: Inspection and Palpation

JoVE 10028

Source: Suneel Dhand, MD, Attending Physician, Internal Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Disorders of the respiratory system with a chief complaint of shortness of breath are among the most common reasons for both outpatient and inpatient evaluation. The most obvious visible clue to a respiratory problem will be whether the patient is displaying any signs of respiratory distress, such as fast respiratory rate and/or cyanosis. In a clinical situation, this will always require emergent attention and oxygen therapy. Unlike pathology in other body systems, many pulmonary disorders, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and pneumonia, can be diagnosed by careful clinical examination alone. This starts with a comprehensive inspection and palpation. Keep in mind that in non-emergency situations the patient's complete history will have been taken already, gaining important insight into exposure histories (e.g., smoking), which could give rise to specific lung diseases. This history can then confirm physical findings as the examination is performed.


 Physical Examinations I

Intraoperative Detection of Subtle Endometriosis: A Novel Paradigm for Detection and Treatment of Pelvic Pain Associated with the Loss of Peritoneal Integrity

1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Greenville Hospital System, 2Department of Pathology, Duke University Health System, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Duke University

JoVE 4313


 Medicine

Respiratory Exam II: Percussion and Auscultation

JoVE 10041

Source: Suneel Dhand, MD, Attending Physician, Internal Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Learning the proper technique for percussion and auscultation of the respiratory system is vital and comes with practice on real patients. Percussion is a useful skill that is often skipped during everyday clinical practice, but if performed correctly, it can help the physician to identify underlying lung pathology. Auscultation can provide an almost immediate diagnosis for a number of acute pulmonary conditions, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, pneumonia, and pneumothorax. The areas for auscultating the lungs correspond to the lung zones. Each lung lobe can be pictured underneath the chest wall during percussion and auscultation (Figure 1). The right lung has three lobes: the superior, middle, and inferior lobes. The left lung has two lobes: the superior and inferior lobes. The superior lobe of the left lung also has a separate projection known as the lingual. Figure 1. Anatomy of lungs with respect to the chest wall. An approximate projection of lungs and their fissures and lobes


 Physical Examinations I

Cecal Ligation and Puncture-induced Sepsis as a Model To Study Autophagy in Mice

1Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 2Department of Medicine, Renal Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 3First Department of Critical Care Medicine and Pulmonary Services, University of Athens Medical School, Evangelismos Hospital, Athens, Greece

JoVE 51066


 Immunology and Infection

Improved Protocol For Laser Microdissection Of Human Pancreatic Islets From Surgical Specimens

1Molecular Diabetology, Paul Langerhans Institute Dresden, 2Department of GI-, Thoracic- and Vascular Surgery, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, University of Technology Dresden, 3Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Metabolic Unit University of Pisa, 4Labs DC0522, Lilly Corporate Center, 5Genomics, Faculty of Medicine Imperial College London, 6Vital-IT, SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, 7Clinical Biochemistry, Hannover Medical School, 8Cell Physiology and Metabolism, Medical School, University of Geneva, 9Department of Pathology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, University of Technology Dresden, 10R&D DIAB Division / Translational Medicine, Sanofi-Aventis

JoVE 50231


 Medicine

A Model of Cardiac Remodeling Through Constriction of the Abdominal Aorta in Rats

1Graduate Institute of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, 2Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Mackay Memorial Hospital, 3Mackay Medicine, Nursing and Management College, 4School of Medicine, National Taiwan University, 5Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hosptial

JoVE 54818


 Medicine

Intravital Microscopy of Monocyte Homing and Tumor-Related Angiogenesis in a Murine Model of Peripheral Arterial Disease

1Department of Cardiology and Angiology, University of Magdeburg, 2Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology, 3Institute of Molecular and Clinical Immunology, University of Magdeburg, 4Division of Hematology/Oncology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School

JoVE 56290


 Medicine

A Simple Flow Cytometric Method to Measure Glucose Uptake and Glucose Transporter Expression for Monocyte Subpopulations in Whole Blood

1Centre for Biomedical Research, Macfarlane Burnet Institute for Medical Research and Public Health, 2Department of Infectious Diseases, Monash University, 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, 4Department of Microbiology, The University of the West Indies, 5Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, 6Department of Medicine, Monash University

JoVE 54255


 Immunology and Infection

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