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Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.

Using Microfluidics Chips for Live Imaging and Study of Injury Responses in Drosophila Larvae

1Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 3Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, 4Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, 5Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan

JoVE 50998


 Bioengineering

Whole-mount Confocal Microscopy for Adult Ear Skin: A Model System to Study Neuro-Vascular Branching Morphogenesis and Immune Cell Distribution

1Laboratory of Stem Cell and Neuro-Vascular Biology, Genetics and Developmental Biology Center, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, 2Earle A. Chiles Research Institute, Robert W. Franz Cancer Center, Providence Portland Medical Center

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 57406


 JoVE In-Press

Sensory Exam

JoVE 10113

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

A complete sensory examination consists of testing primary sensory modalities as well as cortical sensory function. Primary sensory modalities include pain, temperature, light touch, vibration, and joint position sense. Sensation of the face is discussed in the videos Cranial Nerves Exam I and II, as are the special senses of smell, vision, taste, and hearing. The spinothalamic tract mediates pain and temperature information from skin to thalamus. The spinothalamic fibers decussate (cross over) 1-2 spinal nerve segments above the point of entry, then travel up to the brainstem until they synapse on various nuclei in thalamus. From the thalamus, information is then relayed to the cortical areas such as the postcentral gyrus (also known as the primary somatosensory cortex). Afferent fibers transmitting vibration and proprioception travel up to medulla in the ipsilateral posterior columns as fasciculus gracilis and fasciculus cuneatus, which carry information from the lower limbs and upper limbs, respectively. Subsequently, the afferent projections cross over and ascend to the thalamus, and from there to the primary somatosensory cortex. The pattern of a


 Physical Examinations III

In Vivo Electrophysiological Measurement of the Rat Ulnar Nerve with Axonal Excitability Testing

1School of Medical Science, University of New South Wales, 2Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Rigshospitalet and the Institute of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, 3Prince of Wales Clinical School, University of New South Wales

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56102


 JoVE In-Press

Transplantation of Olfactory Ensheathing Cells to Evaluate Functional Recovery after Peripheral Nerve Injury

1UPRES EA3830, Institute for Research and Innovation in Biomedicine, University of Rouen, 2Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, 3Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Department, Rouen University Hospital, 4Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Department, Amiens University Hospital

JoVE 50590


 Neuroscience

Using a Whole-mount Immunohistochemical Method to Study the Innervation of the Biliary Tract in Suncus murinus

1Department of Frontier Health Sciences, Graduate School of Human Health Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 2Department of Anatomy, Tokyo Medical University, 3Area of Regulatory Biology, Division of Life Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University

JoVE 55483


 Biology

Implementation of a Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) System on a Ti:Sapphire and OPO Laser Based Standard Laser Scanning Microscope

1INSERM U1051, Institut des Neurosciences de Montpellier (INM), Université de Montpellier, 2Université de Nîmes, 3CNRS, IES, UMR 5214, 4Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, École Centrale Marseille, Institut Fresnel, UMR 7249, 5Montpellier RIO Imaging (MRI)

JoVE 54262


 Biology

A Unified Methodological Framework for Vestibular Schwannoma Research

1Eaton Peabody Laboratories, Department of Otolaryngology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, 2Department of Otolaryngology, Harvard Medical School, 3Department of Otolaryngology, Vienna General Hospital, Medical University of Vienna, 4Program in Speech and Hearing Bioscience and Technology, Harvard Medical School

JoVE 55827


 Cancer Research

Optimized Protocols for Mycobacterium leprae Strain Management: Frozen Stock Preservation and Maintenance in Athymic Nude Mice

1Department of Pathology, Instituto Lauro de Souza Lima (ILSL), 2Laboratory Animal House, Instituto Lauro de Souza Lima (ILSL), 3Department of Microbiology, Instituto Lauro de Souza Lima (ILSL), 4Department of Pharmacology, Instituto Lauro de Souza Lima (ILSL)

JoVE 50620


 Immunology and Infection

Effects of Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation on the Primary Motor Cortex by Online Combined Approach with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

1School of Psychology, Centre for Cognition and Decision Making, National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2Department of Medicine, Surgery and Neuroscience, Unit of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Brain Investigation & Neuromodulation Lab. (Si-BIN Lab), Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria of Siena, 3Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, 4Centre for Cognition and Decision Making, National Research University Higher School of Economics

JoVE 55839


 Neuroscience

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