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Photoreceptor Cells: Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with Microvilli. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use Opsins that activate a Phosphodiesterase phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a Phospholipase c cascade.

Vibratome Sectioning Mouse Retina to Prepare Photoreceptor Cultures

1Department of Genetics, UMR_S 968, Institut de la Vision, 2Department of Visual Information, UMR_S 968, Institut de la Vision, 3Exploratory Team, UMR_S 968, Institut de la Vision, 4Sorbonne Universités, Paris 06, UMR_S 968, Institut de la Vision, 5INSERM, U968, Institut de la Vision, 6CNRS, UMR_7210, Institut de la Vision

JoVE 51954


 Neuroscience

Large-Scale Purification of Porcine or Bovine Photoreceptor Outer Segments for Phagocytosis Assays on Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells

1INSERM, U968, 2Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Paris 06, UMR_S 968, Institut de la Vision, 3CNRS, UMR_7210, 4Department of Biological Sciences, Center for Cancer, Genetic Diseases and Gene Regulation, Fordham University

JoVE 52100


 Immunology and Infection

In vivo Imaging of Optic Nerve Fiber Integrity by Contrast-Enhanced MRI in Mice

1Hans Berger Department of Neurology, Jena University Hospital, 2Immunology, Leibniz Institute for Age Research, Fritz Lipmann Institute, Jena, 3Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Medical Physics Group, Jena University Hospital

JoVE 51274


 Neuroscience

Limbal Approach-Subretinal Injection of Viral Vectors for Gene Therapy in Mice Retinal Pigment Epithelium

1Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 2FARB Laboratory, Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, 3College of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University College of Medicine

JoVE 53030


 Neuroscience

Subretinal Injection of Gene Therapy Vectors and Stem Cells in the Perinatal Mouse Eye

1Bernard and Shirlee Brown Glaucoma Laboratory, Department of Ophthalmology, Columbia University, 2Institute of Human Nutrition, College of Physicians & Surgeons, Columbia University, 3Omics Laboratory, University of Iowa, 4Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Iowa

JoVE 4286


 Medicine

Isolation of Primary Murine Retinal Ganglion Cells (RGCs) by Flow Cytometry

1Department of Ophthalmology, Hamilton Eye Institute, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 2Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biochemistry, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 3Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 4Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tennessee Health Science Center

JoVE 55785


 Bioengineering

Color Afterimages

JoVE 10194

Source: Laboratory of Jonathan Flombaum—Johns Hopkins University

Human color vision is impressive. People with normal color vision can tell apart millions of individual hues. Most amazingly, this ability is achieved with fairly simple hardware.

Part of the power of human color vision comes from a clever bit of engineering in the human brain. There, color perception relies on what is known as an 'opponent system.' This means that the presence of one kind of stimulus is treated as evidence for the absence of another, and vice versa; absence of one kind of stimulus is taken as evidence for the presence of the other. In particular, in the human brain there are cells that fire both when they receive signals to suggest that blue light is present, or when they do not receive signals suggesting yellow light. Similarly, there are cells that fire in the presence of yellow or the absence of blue. Blue and yellow are thus treated as opponent values in one dimension, and can be thought of as negative versus positive values on one axis of a Cartesian plane. If a stimulus is characterized as having a negative value on that axis, it can't also have a positive value. So, if it is characterized as yellow, it can't also be characterized as blue. Similarly, green and red (or really, magenta), o


 Sensation and Perception

Ophthalmoscopic Examination

JoVE 10146

Source: Richard Glickman-Simon, MD, Assistant Professor, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, MA

The simplest ophthalmoscopes consist of an aperture to look through, a diopter indicator, and a disc for selecting lenses. The ophthalmoscope is primarily used to examine the fundus, or the inner wall of the posterior eye, which consists of the choroid, retina, fovea, macula, optic disc, and retinal vessels (Figure 1). The spherical eyeball collects and focuses light on the neurosensory cells of the retina. Light is refracted as it passes sequentially through the cornea, the lens, and the vitreous body. The first landmark observed during the funduscopic exam is the optic disc, which is where the optic nerve and retinal vessels enter the back of the eye (Figure 2). The disc usually contains a central whitish physiologic cup where the vessels enter; it normally occupies less than half the diameter of the entire disc. Just lateral and slightly inferior is the fovea, a darkened circular area that demarcates the point of central vision. Around this is the macula. A blind spot approximately 15° temporal to the line of gaze results from a lack of photoreceptor cells at the optic disc.

Mapping and Application of Enhancer-trap Flippase Expression in Larval and Adult Drosophila CNS

1Department of Zoology, University of Oklahoma - Norman, 2Department of Biology, Brandeis University

JoVE 2649


 Neuroscience

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