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Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.

Plant Cells and Tissues

JoVE 11091

Plant tissues are collections of similar cells performing related functions. Different plant tissues will have their own specialized roles and can be combined with other tissues to form organs such as flowers, fruit, stem, and leaves. Two major types of plant tissue include meristematic and permanent tissue.

Meristematic tissue, the primary growth tissue in plants, is capable of self-renewal and indefinite cell division. Every cell in the plant originates from a meristem. Meristematic tissue is classified into one of three types depending on its location inside the plant - apical, lateral, and intercalary. Apical meristems are meristematic tissue located at the tip of root and stem, which enable elongation of plant length. Lateral meristems are present in the radial portion of the stem and root and increase the thickness or girth of the maturing plant. Intercalary meristems occur only in monocots at the base of the internode and leaf blade. The intercalary meristems increase the length of the leaf blade. Permanent plant tissues are either simple (composed of similar types of cells) or complex (consisting of different kinds of cells). For example, dermal tissue is a simple permanent tissue that forms the outer protective covering. It protects the plant from physical damage and enables gas exchange. In non-woody plants, the dermal tissue is a layer of t

 Core: Biology

Plant Tissue Culture

JoVE 11112

Plant tissue culture is widely used in both primary and applied science. Applications range from plant development studies to functional gene studies, crop improvement, commercial micropropagation, virus elimination, and conservation of rare species.

Plant tissue culture depends on the ability of plant tissue to give rise to an entire new plant when provided with a growth medium and appropriate environment. This ability of plant cells or tissues is termed ‘totipotency.’ The fundamental steps of plant tissue culture are fourfold: Select a healthy parent plant (explant). Eliminate any microbial contamination from any exposed explant surfaces. Inoculation the explant in an adequate culture medium. Incubation of the explant in a controlled environment with appropriate temperature, humidity, air quality, and illumination. There are also four different types of plant tissue culture, which may be chosen based upon the goals of the culture, or plant species: cell culture (such as gametic cells, cell suspension, and protoplast culture). tissue culture (callus and differentiated tissues). organ culture (any organs such as roots, shoots, and anthers). One of the popular applications of plant tissue culture is the in vitro clonal propagation - als

 Core: Biology

Plant Cell Wall

JoVE 11084

The plant cell wall gives plant cells shape, support, and protection. As a cell matures, its cell wall specializes according to the cell type. For example, the parenchyma cells of leaves possess only a thin, primary cell wall.

Collenchyma and sclerenchyma cells, on the other hand, mainly occur in the outer layers of a plant's stems and leaves. These cells provide the plant with strength and support by either partially thickening their primary cell wall (i.e., collenchyma), or depositing a secondary cell wall (i.e., sclerenchyma). Altogether, the varying cell wall compositions determine the function of specific cells and tissues. Some plants, such as trees and grasses, deposit a secondary cell wall around mature cells. Secondary cell walls typically contain three distinct layers: the secondary wall layer 1 (S1) to the outside, the secondary wall layer 2 (S2) in the middle, and the innermost secondary wall layer 3 (S3). In each layer, the cellulose microfibrils are organized in different orientations. The S2 layer may make up to 75% of the cell wall. Regardless of composition, all plant cell walls have small holes, or pits, that allow for the transport of water, nutrients, and other molecules. In a pit, the middle lamella and primary cell wall merely form a thin membrane that separates adjacent cells.

 Core: Biology

The Roles of Bacteria and Fungi in Plant Nutrition

JoVE 11104

Plants have the impressive ability to create their own food through photosynthesis. However, plants often require assistance from organisms in the soil to acquire the nutrients they need to function correctly. Both bacteria and fungi have evolved symbiotic relationships with plants that help the species to thrive in a wide variety of environments.

The collective bacteria residing in and around plant roots are termed the rhizosphere. These soil-dwelling bacterial species are incredibly diverse. Though some may be pathogenic, most have roles in promoting plant health. In exchange, the bacteria receive nutrition from plants in the form of carbohydrates, amino acids, and nucleic acids. The bacteria called rhizobacteria can protect plants by producing antibiotics or absorbing toxic metals in the soil. Additionally, bacteria help plants by accessing otherwise unusable stores of nutrients in the soil. For example, plants lack the molecular machinery to utilize nitrogen from the atmosphere directly. Instead, they take up nitrogen in the form of ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3- ), which is generated by soil-residing bacteria. During a process called nitrogen fixation, soil-dwelling bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia. Nitrogen-fixation requires large amounts of ATP that bacteria derive from plant-provided carbohydrates. Other groups of bacter

 Core: Biology

Photoreceptors and Plant Responses to Light

JoVE 11115

Light plays a significant role in regulating the growth and development of plants. In addition to providing energy for photosynthesis, light provides other important cues to regulate a range of developmental and physiological responses in plants.

What Is a Photoreceptor?

Plants respond to light using a unique set of light-sensitive proteins called photoreceptors. Photoreceptors contain photopigments, which consist of a protein component bound to a non-protein, light-absorbing pigment called the chromophore. There are several different types of photoreceptors, which vary in their amino acid sequences and the type of chromophore present. These types maximally respond to different specific wavelengths of light, ranging from ultraviolet B (280-315 nanometers) to far-red (700-750 nanometers). The chromophore's absorption of light elicits structural changes in the photoreceptor, triggering a series of signal transduction events that result in gene expression changes. The Phytochrome System Many types of photoreceptors are present in plants. Phytochromes are a class of photoreceptors that sense red and far-red light. The phytochrome system acts as a natural light switch, allowing plants to respond to the intensity, duration, and color of environmental light. The phytochrome system plays a s

 Core: Biology

Cell Structure- Concept

JoVE 10587

Background

Cells represent the most basic biological units of all organisms, whether it be simple, single-celled organisms like bacteria, or large, multicellular organisms like elephants and giant redwood trees. In the mid 19th century, the Cell Theory was proposed to define a cell, which states:



Every living organism is made up of one or more cells.
The cells…

 Lab Bio

Plasmodesmata

JoVE 11085

The organs in a multicellular organism’s body are made up of tissues formed by cells. To work together cohesively, cells must communicate. One way that cells communicate is through direct contact with other cells. The points of contact that connect adjacent cells are called intercellular junctions.

Intercellular junctions are a feature of fungal, plant, and animal cells alike. However, different types of junctions are found in different kinds of cells. Intercellular junctions found in animal cells include tight junctions, gap junctions, and desmosomes. The junctions connecting plant cells are called plasmodesmata. Of the junctions found in animal cells, gap junctions are the most similar to plasmodesmata. Plasmodesmata are passageways that connect adjacent plant cells. Just as two rooms connected by a doorway share a wall, two plant cells connected by a plasmodesma share a cell wall. The plasmodesma “doorway” creates a continuous network of cytoplasm—like air flowing between rooms. It is through this cytoplasmic network—called the symplast—that most nutrients and molecules are transferred among plant cells. A single plant cell has thousands of plasmodesmata perforating its cell wall, although the number and structure of plasmodesmata can vary across cells and change in individual cells. The continuum of

 Core: Biology

Diffusion and Osmosis- Concept

JoVE 10622

Cell Membranes and Diffusion

In order to function, cells are required to move materials in and out of their cytoplasm via their cell membranes. These membranes are semipermeable, meaning that certain molecules are allowed to pass through, but not others. This movement of molecules is mediated by the phospholipid bilayer and its embedded proteins, some of which act as transport channels…

 Lab Bio

Cell Structure - Student Protocol

JoVE 10588

Visualizing Onion and Human Cells
In this experiment you will prepare different types of cells from a plant and animal, onion and human respectively, and then visualize them under a microscope. HYPOTHESES: The experimental hypothesis is that the cells will appear different in overall shape and membrane structure, but there will be some shared similar…

 Lab Bio

Morphogenesis

JoVE 11094

Plant morphogenesis—the development of a plant’s form and structure—involves several overlapping developmental processes, including growth and cell differentiation. Precursor cells differentiate into specific cell types, which are organized into the tissues and organ systems that make up the functional plant.

Plant growth and cell differentiation are under complex hormonal control. Plant hormones regulate gene expression, often in response to environmental stimuli. For example, many plants form flowers. Unlike stems and roots, flowers do not grow throughout a plant’s life. Flowering involves a change in the identity of meristems—regions of the plant containing actively-dividing cells that form new tissues. In addition to internal signals, environmental cues—such as temperature and day length—trigger the expression of meristem identity genes. Meristem identity genes enable the conversion of the shoot apical meristem into the inflorescence meristem, allowing the meristem to produce floral rather than vegetative structures. The inflorescence meristem produces the floral meristem. Cells in the floral meristem differentiate into one of the flower organs—sepals, petals, stamens, or carpels—according to their radial position, which dictates the expression of organ identity genes. The ABC hypo

 Core: Biology

Tonicity in Plants

JoVE 10703

Tonicity describes the capacity of a cell to lose or gain water. It depends on the quantity of solute that does not penetrate the membrane. Tonicity delimits the magnitude and direction of osmosis and results in three possible scenarios that alter the volume of a cell: hypertonicity, hypotonicity, and isotonicity. Due to differences in structure and physiology, tonicity of plant cells is different from that of animal cells in some scenarios. Unlike animal cells, plants thrive when there is more water in their surrounding extracellular environment compared to their cytoplasmic interior. In hypotonic environments, water enters the cell via osmosis and causes it to swell because there is a higher concentration of solutes inside plant cells than outside. The force, that is generated when an influx of water causes the plasma membrane to push against the cell wall, is called turgor pressure. In contrast to animal cells, plant cells have rigid cell walls that limit the osmosis-induced expansion of the plasma membrane. By limiting expansion, the cell wall prevents the cell from bursting and causes plants to stiffen (i.e., become turgid). Turgidity allows plants to hold themselves upright instead of wilting. Plants wilt if they cannot take up sufficient water. In such a scenario, their extracellular surrounding becomes hypertonic, causing water to leave the

 Core: Biology

The Apoplast and Symplast

JoVE 11106

Plant growth depends on its ability to take up water and dissolved minerals from the soil. The root system of every plant is equipped with the necessary tissues to facilitate the entry of water and solutes. The plant tissues involved in the transport of water and minerals have two major compartments - the apoplast and the symplast. The apoplast includes everything outside the plasma membrane of living cells and consists of cell walls, extracellular spaces, xylem, phloem, and tracheids. The symplast, in contrast, consists of the entire cytosol of all living plant cells and the plasmodesmata - which are the cytoplasmic channels interconnecting the cells. There are several potential pathways for molecules to move through the plant tissues: The apoplastic, symplastic, or transmembrane pathways. The apoplastic pathway involves the movement of water and dissolved minerals along cell walls and extracellular spaces. In the symplastic route, water and solutes move along the cytosol. Once in this pathway, materials need to cross the plasma membrane when moving from cell to neighboring cell, and they do this via the plasmodesmata. Alternatively, in the transmembrane route, the dissolved minerals and water move from cell to cell by crossing the cell wall to exit one cell and enter the next. These three pathways are not mutually exclusive, and some solutes may use more than on

 Core: Biology

Responses to Salt Stress

JoVE 11120

Salt stress—which can be triggered by high salt concentrations in a plant’s environment—can significantly affect plant growth and crop production by influencing photosynthesis and the absorption of water and nutrients.

Plant cell cytoplasm has a high solute concentration, which causes water to flow from the soil into the plant due to osmosis. However, excess salt in the surrounding soil increases the soil solute concentration, reducing the plant’s ability to take up water. High levels of sodium are toxic to plants, so increasing their sodium content to compensate is not a viable option. However, many plants can respond to moderate salt stress by increasing internal levels of solutes that are well-tolerated at high concentrations—like proline and glycine. The resulting increased solute concentration within the cell cytoplasm allows the roots to increase water uptake from the soil without taking in toxic levels of sodium. Sodium is not essential for most plants, and excess sodium affects the absorption of essential nutrients. For example, the uptake of potassium—which regulates photosynthesis, protein synthesis, and other essential plant functions—is impeded by sodium in highly saline conditions. Calcium can ameliorate some effects of salt stress by facilitating potassium uptake through the regulation of ion

 Core: Biology

What are Cells?

JoVE 10687

Cells are the foundational level of organization of life. An organism may be unicellular, as with prokaryotes and most eukaryotic protists, or multicellular where the functions of an organism are divided into different collections of specialized cells. In multicellular eukaryotes, cells are the building blocks of complex structures and can have various forms and functions.

Cells are the building blocks of all living organisms, whether it is a single cell that forms the entire organism (e.g., a bacterium) or trillions of them (e.g., humans). No matter what organism a cell is a part of, they share specific characteristics. A living cell has a plasma membrane, a bilayer of lipids, which separates the watery solution inside the cell, also called cytoplasm, from the outside of the cell. Furthermore, a living cell can replicate itself, which requires that it possess genetic information encoded in DNA. DNA can be localized to a particular area of the cell, as in the nucleoid of a prokaryotic cell, or it can be contained inside another membrane, such as the nucleus of eukaryotes. Eukaryote means "true nucleus." The word prokaryote, hence, implies that the cell is from a group which arose before membrane-bound nuclei appeared in the history of life. Prokaryotic cells lack internal membranes. In contrast, eukaryotes have internal membran

 Core: Biology

Short-distance Transport of Resources

JoVE 11097

Short-distance transport refers to transport that occurs over a distance of just 2-3 cells, crossing the plasma membrane in the process. Small uncharged molecules, such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water, can diffuse across the plasma membrane on their own. In contrast, ions and larger molecules require the assistance of transport proteins due to their charge or size. Transport across membranes also occurs within individual cells, playing a variety of essential roles for the plant as a whole. Resources are transported into and out of the central vacuole within each plant cell One of the roles of the large central vacuole of a plant cell is the storage of resources. Active and passive transport proteins are found in the vacuolar membrane, or tonoplast, just as they are found in the plasma membrane of the cell, and they regulate the movement of solutes between the cytoplasm and vacuole. Sugar can be stored for later, ions are sequestered from the cytoplasm, and protons, in particular, are pumped into the vacuole, creating an acidic environment for breaking down unwanted or toxic substances that enter the cell. Movement across the tonoplast controls turgor pressure In addition to its role in storage, the vacuole generates turgor pressure - a force that pushes the plasma membrane against the cell wall -

 Core: Biology

Cell Size

JoVE 10688

The size of cells varies widely among and within organisms. For instance, the smallest bacteria are 0.1 micrometers (μm) in diameter—about a thousand times smaller than many eukaryotic cells. Most other bacteria are larger than these tiny ones—between 1-10 μm—but they still tend to be smaller than most eukaryotic cells, which typically range from 10-100 μm.

Larger is not necessarily better when it comes to cells. For instance, cells need to take in nutrients and water through diffusion. The plasma membrane surrounding cells limits the rate at which these materials are exchanged. Smaller cells tend to have a higher surface area to volume ratio than larger cells. That is because changes in volume are not linear to changes in surface area. When a sphere increases in size, the volume grows proportional to the cube of its radius (r3), while its surface area grows proportional to only the square of its radius (r2). Therefore, smaller cells have relatively more surface area compared to their volume than larger cells of the same shape. A larger surface area means more area of the plasma membrane where materials can pass into and out of the cell. Substances also need to travel within cells. Hence the rate of diffusion may limit processes in large cells. Prokaryotes are often small and divide before they face limitat

 Core: Biology

Water and Mineral Acquisition

JoVE 11096

Specialized tissues in plant roots have evolved to capture water, minerals, and some ions from the soil. Roots exhibit a variety of branching patterns that facilitate this process. The outermost root cells have specialized structures called root hairs that increase the root surface, thus increasing soil contact. Water can passively cross into roots, as the concentration of water in the soil is higher than that of the root tissue. Minerals, in contrast, are actively transported into root cells. Soil has a negative charge, so positive ions tend to remain attached to soil particles. To circumvent this, roots pump carbon dioxide into the soil, which spontaneously breaks down, releasing positively charged protons (H+) into the soil. These protons displace soil-associated positively charged ions that are available to be pumped into the root tissue, a process called cation exchange. Negatively charged anions exploit the tendency of H+ ions to diffuse down their concentration gradient and back into root cells using co-transport: ions like Cl- are cotransported into the root tissue in association with H+ ions. Molecules can travel into the core of the root tissue, called the stele, by two routes. Apoplastic transport is the movement of molecules in the spaces created between the continuous cell walls of neighboring cells and their corr

 Core: Biology

What is Cell Signaling?

JoVE 10985

Despite the protective membrane that separates a cell from the environment, cells need the ability to detect and respond to environmental changes. Additionally, cells often need to communicate with one another. Unicellular and multicellular organisms use a variety of cell signaling mechanisms to communicate to respond to the environment.

Cells respond to many types of information, often through receptor proteins positioned on the membrane. For example, skin cells respond to and transmit touch information, while photoreceptors in the retina can detect light. Most cells, however, have evolved to respond to chemical signals, including hormones, neurotransmitters, and many other types of signaling molecules. Cells can even coordinate different responses elicited by the same signaling molecule. Typically, cell signaling involves three steps: (1) reception of the signal, (2) signal transduction, and (3) a response. In most signal reception, a membrane-impermeable molecule, or ligand, causes a change in a membrane receptor; however, some signaling molecules, such as hormones, can traverse the membrane to reach their internal receptors. The membrane receptor can then send this signal to intracellular messengers, which transduces the message into a cellular response. This intracellular response may include a change transcription, translation, protein activation,

 Core: Biology

Responses to Heat and Cold Stress

JoVE 11119

Every organism has an optimum temperature range within which healthy growth and physiological functioning can occur. At the ends of this range, there will be a minimum and maximum temperature that interrupt biological processes.

When the environmental dynamics fall out of the optimal limit for a given species, changes in metabolism and functioning occur – and this is defined as stress. Plants respond to stress by initiating changes in gene expression - leading to adjustments in plant metabolism and development aimed at attaining a state of homeostasis. Plants maintain membrane fluidity during temperature fluctuations Cell membranes in plants are generally one of the first structures that are affected by a change in ambient temperature. These membranes primarily constitute phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins, with the lipid portion comprising long chains of unsaturated or saturated fatty acids. One of the primary strategies plants can adopt under temperature change is to alter the lipid component of their membranes. Typically, plants will decrease the degree of unsaturation of membrane lipids under high temperature, and increase it under low temperature, maintaining the fluidity of the membrane. Heat Shock Proteins The exposure of plant tissue or cells to sudden high-temperature stress res

 Core: Biology

Mitosis and Cytokinesis

JoVE 10762

In eukaryotic cells, the cell's cycle—the division cycle—is divided into distinct, coordinated cellular processes that include cell growth, DNA replication/chromosome duplication, chromosome distribution to daughter cells, and finally, cell division. The cell cycle is tightly regulated by its regulatory systems as well as extracellular signals that affect cell proliferation. The processes of the cell cycle occur over approximately 24 hours (in typical human cells) and in two major distinguishable stages. The first stage is DNA replication, during the S phase of interphase. The second stage is the mitotic (M) phase, which involves the separation of the duplicated chromosomes into two new nuclei (mitosis) and cytoplasmic division (cytokinesis). The two phases are separated by intervals (G1 and G2 gaps), during which the cell prepares for replication and division. Mitosis can be divided into five distinct stages—prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Cytokinesis, which begins during anaphase or telophase (depending on the cell), is part of the M phase, but not part of mitosis. As the cell enters mitosis, its replicated chromosomes begin to condense and become visible as threadlike structures with the aid of proteins known as condensins. The mitotic spindle apparatus b

 Core: Biology

Non-nuclear Inheritance

JoVE 11007

Most DNA resides in the nucleus of a cell. However, some organelles in the cell cytoplasm⁠—such as chloroplasts and mitochondria⁠—also have their own DNA. These organelles replicate their DNA independently of the nuclear DNA of the cell in which they reside. Non-nuclear inheritance describes the inheritance of genes from structures other than the nucleus.

Mitochondria aresent in both plants and animal cells. They are regarded as the “powerhouses” of eukaryotic cells because they break down glucose to form energy that fuels cellular activity. Mitochondrial DNA consists of about 37 genes, and many of them contribute to this process, called oxidative phosphorylation. Chloroplasts are found in plants and algae and are the sites of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis allows these organisms to produce glucose from sunlight. Chloroplast DNA consists of about 100 genes, many of which are involved in photosynthesis. Unlike chromosomal DNA in the nucleus, chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA do not abide by the Mendelian assumption that half an organism’s genetic material comes from each parent. This is because sperm cells do not generally contribute mitochondrial or chloroplast DNA to zygotes during fertilization. While a sperm cell primarily contributes one haploid set of nuclear chromosomes to the zygote, an egg cell contribu

 Core: Biology

Density Gradient Ultracentrifugation

JoVE 5685

Density gradient ultracentrifugation is a common technique used to isolate and purify biomolecules and cell structures. This technique exploits the fact that, in suspension, particles that are more dense than the solvent will sediment, while those that are less dense will float. A high-speed ultracentrifuge is used to accelerate this process in order to separate biomolecules within a density…

 Biochemistry

Cell Structure - Prep Student

JoVE 10631

Visualizing Onion and Cheek Cells
Immediately before the experiment, wash and peel onion bulbs for the class.
Remove the entire brown outer skin and cut the onion in half with a knife. Pull apart the layers of the onion. The thin, nearly transparent film layers within the onion will be used by the students.
Place the onion film into a Petri…

 Lab Bio

An Overview of Genetic Engineering

JoVE 5552

Genetic engineering – the process of purposefully altering an organism’s DNA – has been used to create powerful research tools and model organisms, and has also seen many agricultural applications. However, in order to engineer traits to tackle complex agricultural problems such as stress tolerance, or to realize the promise of gene therapy for treating…

 Genetics

Diffusion and Osmosis - Prep Student

JoVE 10563

Preparation of Solutions for the Agar Cube Experiment
IMPORTANT: Wear gloves, goggles, and appropriate personal protective equipment – chemicals can be hazardous at high concentrations.
For the diffusion indicator solution, weigh out 1 g of phenolphthalein and add it to a beaker containing 100 mL of 95% ethanol.
To make the basic…

 Lab Bio

Biological Clocks and Seasonal Responses

JoVE 11116

The circadian—or biological—clock is an intrinsic, timekeeping, molecular mechanism that allows plants to coordinate physiological activities over 24-hour cycles called circadian rhythms. Photoperiodism is a collective term for the biological responses of plants to variations in the relative lengths of dark and light periods. The period of light-exposure is called the photoperiod. One example of photoperiodism in plants is seasonal flowering. Scientists believe that plants are cued to flower by the correspondence of their circadian clocks to changes in the photoperiod. They detect these changes using light-sensitive photoreceptor systems. Phytochromes are a group of photoreceptors involved in flowering and other light-mediated processes. The phytochrome system enables plants to compare the duration of dark periods over several days. Short-day (long-night) plants flower after a minimum number of consecutive long nights. Long-day (short-night) plants, by contrast, initiate flowering following a minimum number of consecutive short nights. Phytochromes exist as two interconvertible forms: Pr and Pfr. Pr is converted into Pfr during the day, so Pfr is more abundant in daylight hours. Pfr is converted into Pr at night, so there is more Pr at nighttime. Therefore, plants can determine the length of the day-night cycle by me

 Core: Biology

Defenses Against Pathogens and Herbivores

JoVE 11121

Plants present a rich source of nutrients for many organisms, making it a target for herbivores and infectious agents. Plants, though lacking a proper immune system, have developed an array of constitutive and inducible defenses to fend off these attacks.

Mechanical defenses form the first line of defense in plants. The thick barrier formed by the bark protects plants from herbivores. Hard shells, modified branches like thorns, and modified leaves like spines can also discourage herbivores from preying on plants. Other physical barriers like the waxy cuticle, epidermis, cell-wall, and trichomes can help resist invasion by several pathogens. Plants also resort to the production of chemicals or organic compounds in the form of secondary metabolites like terpenes, phenolics, glycosides, and alkaloids, for defense against both herbivores and pathogens. Many secondary metabolites are toxic and lethal to other organisms. Some specific metabolites can repel predators with noxious odors, repellant tastes, or allergenic characteristics. Plants also produce proteins and enzymes that specifically inhibit pathogen-proteins or pathogen-enzymes by blocking active sites or altering enzyme conformations. Proteins like defensins, lectins, amylase inhibitors, and proteinase inhibitors are produced in significant quantities during pathogen attack and are activated to

 Core: Biology

Ecosystem Fabrication (EcoFAB) Protocols for The Construction of Laboratory Ecosystems Designed to Study Plant-microbe Interactions

1Environmental Genomics and Systems Biology Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2Joint Genome Institute, Department of Energy, 3Joint BioEnergy Institute, 4Department of Environmental Science Policy and Management, University of California

JoVE 57170

 Environment

A Multi-well Format Polyacrylamide-based Assay for Studying the Effect of Extracellular Matrix Stiffness on the Bacterial Infection of Adherent Cells

1Department of Biochemistry, Stanford University School of Medicine, 2Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California San Diego, 3Departments of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine

JoVE 57361

 Immunology and Infection
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