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Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)

A Rapid Laser Probing Method Facilitates the Non-invasive and Contact-free Determination of Leaf Thermal Properties

1Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME, Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e. V., 2Institute for Molecular Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, 3Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT, Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e. V.

JoVE 54835


 Biochemistry

Using High Resolution Computed Tomography to Visualize the Three Dimensional Structure and Function of Plant Vasculature

1U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2Department of Viticulture and Enology, University of California - Davis, 3Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment, University of Western Sydney, 4Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 5Citrus Research & Education Center, University of Florida

JoVE 50162


 Biology

Assessing the Particulate Matter Removal Abilities of Tree Leaves

1Key Laboratory of Silviculture and Conservation of Ministry of Education, Beijing Forestry University, 2School of Environment, Key Laboratory for Yellow River and Huai River Water Environment and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control, Henan Normal University

JoVE 58026


 Environment

Stomata Tape-Peel: An Improved Method for Guard Cell Sample Preparation

1Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, University of Florida, 2Department of Biology, University of Florida, 3Genetics Institute (UFGI), University of Florida, 4Alkali Soil Natural Environmental Science Center, Northeast Forestry University, 5Interdisciplinary Center for Biotechnology Research (ICBR), University of Florida

JoVE 57422


 Biology

A Flexible Low Cost Hydroponic System for Assessing Plant Responses to Small Molecules in Sterile Conditions

1Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Brazilian Center for Research in energy and materials (CNPEM), 2University of Campinas (UNICAMP), 3University of Viçosa (UFV), 4CTBE, CNPEM, 5Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE/CNPEM), Max Planck Partner Group

JoVE 57800


 Environment

The Plant Infection Test: Spray and Wound-Mediated Inoculation with the Plant Pathogen Magnaporthe Grisea

1Beijing Key Laboratory of New Technology in Agricultural Application, National Demonstration Center for Experimental Plant Production Education, Beijing University of Agriculture, 2College of Plant Protection, State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Pest Monitoring and Green Management, China Agricultural University

JoVE 57675


 Environment

Sonication Extraction of Lipid Biomarkers from Sediment

JoVE 10055

Source: Laboratory of Jeff Salacup - University of Massachusetts Amherst

The material comprising the living "organic" share of any ecosystem (leaves, fungi, bark, tissue; Figure 1) differs fundamentally from the material of the non-living "inorganic" share (rocks and their constituent minerals, oxygen, water, metals). Organic material contains carbon linked to a series of other carbon and hydrogen molecules (Figure 2), which distinguishes it from inorganic material. Carbon's wide valency range (-4 to +4) allows it to form up to four separate covalent bonds with neighboring atoms, usually C, H, O, N, S, and P. It can also share up to three covalent bonds with a single other atom, such as the triple bond in the often-poisonous cyanide, or nitrile, group. Over the past 4.6 billion years, this flexibility has led to an amazing array of chemical structures, which vary in size, complexity, polarity, shape, and function. The scientific field of organic geochemistry is concerned with the identification and characterization of the whole range of detectable organic compounds, called biomarkers, produced by life on this planet, as we


 Earth Science

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