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October, 2006
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Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)


JoVE 10944

Symbiotic relationships are long-term, close interactions between individuals of different species that affect the distribution and abundance of those species. When a relationship is beneficial to both species, this is called mutualism. When the relationship is beneficial to one species but neither beneficial nor harmful to the other species, this is called commensalism. When one organism is harmed to benefit another, the relationship is known as parasitism. These types of relationships often result in co-evolution and contribute to the complexity of community structure. Mutualism occurs when both species benefit from a close relationship. One common example is the relationship between ants and aphids. Aphids feed on the phloem of plant stems with their piercing mouthparts and excrete a sugary fluid. Ants, which feed on this excretion, have evolved a complex relationship with the aphids similar to that between farmers and dairy cattle. Ants will carry the aphids to different food sources, protect the aphids from predation, and remove aphids infected by fungal parasites. The ants then benefit by consuming the sugary excretions produced by the aphids. Commensal relationships benefit one species, but neither hurt nor harm the other. For example, epiphytes (such as Spanish moss) use trees and other plants for structural support to grow but do not harm or b

 Core: Biology

Robotic Sensing and Stimuli Provision for Guided Plant Growth

1Institute of Computer Engineering, University of Lübeck, 2Institute of Biology, Artificial Life Lab, University of Graz, 3Cybertronica UG, 4Department of Computer Science, IT University of Copenhagen, 5Centre for IT and Architecture, Royal Danish Academy

JoVE 59835


The Use of Induced Somatic Sector Analysis (ISSA) for Studying Genes and Promoters Involved in Wood Formation and Secondary Stem Development

1School of Ecosystem and Forest Sciences, Faculty of Science, The University of Melbourne, 2Victorian AgriBiosciences Centre, La Trobe University R&D Park, 3College of Biological Sciences, Department of Plant Biology, University of California, Davis, 4Department of Genetics, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), University of Pretoria

JoVE 54553


Inducible, Cell Type-Specific Expression in Arabidopsis thaliana Through LhGR-Mediated Trans-Activation

1Department of Developmental Physiology, Centre for Organismal Studies (COS) Heidelberg, 2Department of Cell Biology, Centre for Organismal Studies (COS) Heidelberg, 3Department of Stem Cell Biology, Centre for Organismal Studies (COS) Heidelberg

JoVE 59394

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