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Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant: Kidney disorders with autosomal dominant inheritance and characterized by multiple Cysts in both Kidneys with progressive deterioration of renal function.
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The Multiple Sclerosis Performance Test (MSPT): An iPad-Based Disability Assessment Tool

1Mellen Center for Multiple Sclerosis Treatment and Research, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 2Center for Brain Health, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 3Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation

JoVE 51318


 Medicine

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Semiconductors

JoVE 10410

Source: Derek Wilson, Asantha Cooray, PhD, Department of Physics & Astronomy, School of Physical Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA

Semiconductors are materials whose ability to conduct an electrical current depends strongly on their temperature and level of impurity. The most common type of semiconductor material is crystalline silicon. Most pure semiconductors are not outstanding conductors; to improve conductivity, a pure semiconductor is often combined or "doped" with an impurity. These impurities are either donors, like phosphorus and arsenic, that donate electrons to the silicon, or acceptors, like boron and aluminum, that steal electrons from the silicon. When acceptors take electrons from the silicon, they leave regions of positive charge called "holes" that effectively behave as positively charged electrons. A p-type semiconductor is formed when doping makes holes that are the dominant charge carrier in the material. An n-type semiconductor is formed when a semiconductor is doped such that the dominant charge carrier is the electron. As one might expect, a p-n junction is formed at the boundary between the p-type semiconductor and n-type semiconductor. The interaction of electrons and holes at the junction gives


 Physics II

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Fetal Echocardiography and Pulsed-wave Doppler Ultrasound in a Rabbit Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction

1Division Woman and Child, Department Women, University Hospitals Leuven, 2The Ritchie Centre, Monash Institute of Medical Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Monash University, Victoria, Australia, 3Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 4Fetal and Perinatal Medicine Research Group, Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), 5Maternal-Fetal Medicine Department, ICGON, Hospital Clínic, Universitat de Barcelona, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER)

JoVE 50392


 Medicine

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Percussion

JoVE 10136

Source: Jaideep S. Talwalkar, MD, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT

Simply stated, percussion refers to the striking of one object against another to produce sound. In the early 1700s, an Austrian inn-keeper's son, named Leopold Auenbrugger, discovered that he could take inventory by tapping his father's beer barrels with his fingers. Years later, while practicing medicine in Vienna, he applied this technique to his patients and published the first description of the diagnostic utility of percussion in 1761. His findings faded into obscurity until the prominent French physician Jean-Nicolas Corvisart rediscovered his writings in 1808, during an era in which great attention was focused on diagnostic accuracy at the bedside.1 There are three types of percussion. Auenbrugger and Corvisart relied on direct percussion, in which the plexor (i.e. tapping) finger strikes directly against the patient's body. An indirect method is used more commonly today. In indirect percussion, the plexor finger strikes a pleximeter, which is typically the middle finger of the non-dominant hand placed against the patient's body. As the examiner's finger strikes the pleximeter (or directly against the surface of the patient's body)


 Physical Examinations I

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A Mouse Tumor Model of Surgical Stress to Explore the Mechanisms of Postoperative Immunosuppression and Evaluate Novel Perioperative Immunotherapies

1Centre for Innovative Cancer Research, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, 2Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa, 3Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, 4Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, 5Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, University of Tabuk, 6Department of Surgery, Ottawa General Hospital

JoVE 51253


 Medicine

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Arterial Line Placement

JoVE 10178

Source: Sharon Bord, MD, Department of Emergency Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Maryland, USA

When monitoring patients, it is important to obtain values that are accurate and reliable. Blood pressure monitoring is one of the essential vital signs, and for a majority of patients, measuring it utilizing non-invasive techniques provides accurate values. However, there are situations in which the blood pressure requires more exact, specific, and reliable measurements. This can be achieved by intra-arterial blood pressure monitoring and requires arterial line placement. Arterial line placement refers to the insertion of a catheter, which is able to transduce blood pressure, into one of the major arteries (e.g., radial or femoral artery). Patients who potentially need arterial line placement include those with extreme low (such as in sepsis or cardiogenic shock) or high (as in cerebrovascular accident or hypertensive emergency) blood pressure measurements. Many of these patients are placed on vasoactive medications to either increase or decrease blood pressure. When the goal is to decrease a patient's blood pressure, it must be done gradually, which further necessitates close blood pressure monitoring. Arterial line placement is also ideal for patients who require frequent arterial blood gas moni


 Emergency Medicine and Critical Care

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Modeling Astrocytoma Pathogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo Using Cortical Astrocytes or Neural Stem Cells from Conditional, Genetically Engineered Mice

1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 2Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 3Division of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 4Curriculum in Genetics and Molecular Biology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 5Biological and Biomedical Sciences Program, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 6Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, 7Department of Neurology, Neurosciences Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine

JoVE 51763


 Neuroscience

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Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the Dorsal Skin of Hamsters: a Useful Model for the Screening of Antileishmanial Drugs

1Program for the Study and Control of Tropical Diseases -PECET-School of Medicine, University of Antioquia, 2School of Agrarian Sciences, University of Antioquia

JoVE 3533


 Immunology and Infection

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Cecal Ligation and Puncture-induced Sepsis as a Model To Study Autophagy in Mice

1Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 2Department of Medicine, Renal Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 3First Department of Critical Care Medicine and Pulmonary Services, University of Athens Medical School, Evangelismos Hospital, Athens, Greece

JoVE 51066


 Immunology and Infection

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Analyzing the Communication Between Monocytes and Primary Breast Cancer Cells in an Extracellular Matrix Extract (ECME)-based Three-dimensional System

1Unidad de Investigación en Virología y Cáncer, Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez, 2Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias Biomédicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

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JoVE 56589


 JoVE In-Press

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