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Principal Component Analysis: Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.
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Whole-cell Patch-clamp Recordings of Isolated Primary Epithelial Cells from the Epididymis

1School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, 2Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 4Shanghai Institute for Advanced Immunochemical Studies, ShanghaiTech University

JoVE 55700


 Developmental Biology

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High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

JoVE 10156

Source: Dr. Paul Bower - Purdue University

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is an important analytical method commonly used to separate and quantify components of liquid samples. In this technique, a solution (first phase) is pumped through a column that contains a packing of small porous particles with a second phase bound to the surface. The different solubilities of the sample components in the two phases cause the components to move through the column with different average velocities, thus creating a separation of these components. The pumped solution is called the mobile phase, while the phase in the column is called the stationary phase. There are several modes of liquid chromatography, depending upon the type of stationary and/or mobile phase employed. This experiment uses reversed-phase chromatography, where the stationary phase is non-polar, and the mobile phase is polar. The stationary phase to be employed is C18 hydrocarbon groups bonded to 3-µm silica particles, while the mobile phase is an aqueous buffer with a polar organic modifier (acetonitrile) added to vary its eluting strength. In this form, the silica can be used for samples that are water-soluble, providing a broad range of applications. In this experiment, the mixtures of three components frequently found


 Analytical Chemistry

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Optimized Protocol for the Extraction of Proteins from the Human Mitral Valve

1Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, 2Cardiovascular Tissue Bank of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, 3Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Cardiovascular Section, University of Milan, 4Department of Cardiovascular Disease, Development and Innovation Cardiac Surgery Unit, Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS

JoVE 55762


 Biochemistry

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The C. elegans Intestine As a Model for Intercellular Lumen Morphogenesis and In Vivo Polarized Membrane Biogenesis at the Single-cell Level: Labeling by Antibody Staining, RNAi Loss-of-function Analysis and Imaging

1Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, Developmental Biology and Genetics Core, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2College of Life Sciences, Jilin University, 3Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau

JoVE 56100


 Developmental Biology

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Compound Administration I

JoVE 10198

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

As many research protocols require that a substance be injected into an animal, the route of delivery and the amount of the substance must be accurately determined. There are several routes of administration available in the mouse and rat. Which route to use is determined by several factors of the substance to be injected: the pH of the solution, the volume required for the desired dosage, and the viscosity of the solution. Severe tissue damage can occur if a substance is administered incorrectly. This video looks at the various restraint methods and technical details for the most commonly used injection routes.


 Lab Animal Research

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Chondrogenic Pellet Formation from Cord Blood-derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

1CiSTEM Laboratory, Convergent Research Consortium for Immunologic Disease, Division of Rheumatology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 2Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, Institute of Medical Science, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea

JoVE 55988


 Developmental Biology

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Spectrophotometric Determination of an Equilibrium Constant

JoVE 10094

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Michael Evans — Georgia Institute of Technology

The equilibrium constant, K, for a chemical system is the ratio of product concentrations to reactant concentrations at equilibrium, each raised to the power of their respective stoichiometric coefficients. Measurement of K involves determination of these concentrations for systems in chemical equilibrium. Reaction systems containing a single colored component can be studied spectrophotometrically. The relation between absorbance and concentration for the colored component is measured and used to determine its concentration in the reaction system of interest. Concentrations of the colorless components can be calculated indirectly using the balanced chemical equation and the measured concentration of the colored component. In this video, the Beer's law curve for Fe(SCN)2+ is determined empirically and applied to the measurement of K for the following reaction: Four reaction systems with different initial concentrations of reactants are investigated to illustrate that K remains constant irrespective of initial concentration


 General Chemistry

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A Component-resolved Diagnostic Approach for a Study on Grass Pollen Allergens in Chinese Southerners with Allergic Rhinitis and/or Asthma

1State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, 2National Clinical Research Center of Respiratory Disease, 3Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Diseases, 4Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, 5Department of Respiratory Medicine, Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University

JoVE 55723


 Medicine

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Vectors in Multiple Directions

JoVE 10315

Source: Nicholas Timmons, Asantha Cooray, PhD, Department of Physics & Astronomy, School of Physical Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA

This experiment demonstrates how vectors add and subtract in multiple directions. The goal will be to analytically calculate the addition or subtraction of multiple vectors and then to experimentally confirm the calculations. A vector is an object with both magnitude and direction. The magnitude of a vector is simply denoted as the length, while the direction is typically defined by the angle it makes with the x-axis. Because forces are vectors, they can be used as a physical representation of vectors. By setting up a system of forces and finding which additional force will create an equilibrium between the forces, a system of vectors can be experimentally verified.


 Physics I

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Lesion Explorer: A Video-guided, Standardized Protocol for Accurate and Reliable MRI-derived Volumetrics in Alzheimer's Disease and Normal Elderly

1LC Campbell Cognitive Neurology Research Unit, Heart & Stroke Foundation Canadian Partnership for Stroke Recovery, Brain Sciences Research Program, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2Department of Medicine (Neurology), Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto

JoVE 50887


 Medicine

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Safe Handling of Mineral Acids

JoVE 10370

Source: Robert M. Rioux & Taslima A. Zaman, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA

A mineral acid (or inorganic acid) is defined as a water-soluble acid derived from inorganic minerals by chemical reaction as opposed to organic acids (e.g. acetic acid, formic acid). Examples of mineral acids include: • Boric acid (CAS No.10043-35-3) • Chromic acid (CAS No.1333-82-0) • Hydrochloric acid (CAS No.7647-01-0) • Hydrofluoric acid (CAS No. 7664-39-3) • Nitric acid (CAS No. 7697-37-2) • Perchloric acid (CAS No. 7601-90-3) • Phosphoric acid (CAS No.7664-38-2) • Sulfuric acid (CAS No.7664-93-9) Mineral acids are commonly found in research laboratories and their corrosive nature makes them a significant safety risk. Since they are important reagents in the research laboratory and often do not have substitutes, it is important that they are handled properly and with care. Some acids are even shock sensitive and under certain conditions may cause explosions (i.e., salts of perchloric acid).


 Lab Safety

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Coordinate Mapping of Hyolaryngeal Mechanics in Swallowing

1Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, 2Department of Communicative Sciences and Disorders, New York University, 3Department of Cellular Biology & Anatomy, Georgia Regents University, 4Department of Otolaryngology, Georgia Regents University

JoVE 51476


 Medicine

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Fiber Connections of the Supplementary Motor Area Revisited: Methodology of Fiber Dissection, DTI, and Three Dimensional Documentation

1Department of Neurosurgery, University of Minnesota, 2Department of Neurosurgery, Barrow Neurological Institute, St. Josephs Hospital and Medical Center, 3Department of Radiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 4Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota, 5Department of Neurosurgery, Tepecik Training and Research Hospital, 6Department of Neurosurgery, Cerrahpasa Medical School, University of Istanbul

JoVE 55681


 Neuroscience

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