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Propylene Glycol: A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.

Viscosity of Propylene Glycol Solutions

JoVE 10439

Source: Michael G. Benton and Kerry M. Dooley, Department of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA

Viscosity is a measure of a fluid's resistance to flow, and it is a useful parameter in the design of efficient product processing and quality control in a wide range of industries. A variety of viscometers are used to obtain the most accurate readings of experimental materials. The standard method of measuring viscosity is through a glass tube viscometer, which estimates viscosity by measuring the amount of time it takes fluid to flow through a capillary tube made of glass1. Rotational viscometers operate by applying shearing forces and measuring the time it takes a flowing1. These viscometers make use of the flowing force of the fluid, and they can use either a spring system or a digital encoder system1. Different measuring systems exist as well, with the standard being a cone and plate system, where fluid flows under the cone shape and over the plate, in order to minimize shear stress1. Parallel plate systems use two parallel plates and is ideal for measuring across temperature gradients, allowing a smooth transition1. Couette systems use a cup and


 Chemical Engineering

Pharmacologic Induction of Epidermal Melanin and Protection Against Sunburn in a Humanized Mouse Model

1The Markey Cancer Center, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, 2Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, 3Department of Molecular and Biomedical Pharmacology, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, 4Department of Pediatrics, University of Kentucky College of Medicine

JoVE 50670


 Medicine

The Hawaii Protocol for Scientific Monitoring of Coffee Berry Borer: a Model for Coffee Agroecosystems Worldwide

1Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, 2Daniel K. Inouye US Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center, United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, 3College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 4Independent Consultant on CBB Management

JoVE 57204


 Environment

Non-invasive Assessments of Subjective and Objective Recovery Characteristics Following an Exhaustive Jump Protocol

1Department of Business Economics, Health and Social Care, University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Southern Switzerland, 2University College Physiotherapy "Thim van der Laan", 3Department of Movement and Sport Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 4Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Antwerp

JoVE 55612


 Medicine

Synthesis of Thermogelling Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-graft-chondroitin Sulfate Composites with Alginate Microparticles for Tissue Engineering

1Department of Chemical Engineering, Rowan University, 2Department of Biological Sciences, Rowan University, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Drexel University

JoVE 53704


 Bioengineering

Double Emulsion Generation Using a Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) Co-axial Flow Focus Device

1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, 2Joint UCSF/UCB Bioengineering Graduate Group, University of California, San Francisco, 3Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, 4California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences, University of California, San Francisco

JoVE 53516


 Bioengineering

Microfluidic Chips for In Situ Crystal X-ray Diffraction and In Situ Dynamic Light Scattering for Serial Crystallography

1Center for Free Electron Laser Science, DESY, 2Department of Physics, University of Hamburg, 3Institute for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Laboratory for Structural Biology of Infection and Inflammation, University of Hamburg, 4The Hamburg Center for Ultrafast Imaging, University of Hamburg, 5Integrated Biology Infrastructure Life-Science Facility at the European XFEL (XBI), 6European Molecular Biology Laboratory, EMBL c/o DESY, 7Department of Cellular and Molecular Biophysics, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry

JoVE 57133


 Chemistry

Generation of Electronic Cigarette Aerosol by a Third-Generation Machine-Vaping Device: Application to Toxicological Studies

1Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, 2Department of Environmental Sciences, College of the Coast & Environment, Louisiana State University, 3SCIREQ Scientific Respiratory Equipment Inc.

JoVE 58095


 Chemistry

Dextran Enhances the Lentiviral Transduction Efficiency of Murine and Human Primary NK Cells

1Laboratory of Molecular Immunology and Immunotherapy, Blood Research Institute, The Blood Center of Wisconsin, 2Vector Core Lab, Blood Research Institute, The Blood Center of Wisconsin, 3Laboratory of Lymphocyte Biology, Blood Research Institute, The Blood Center of Wisconsin, 4Laboratory of Stem Cell Transcriptional Regulation, Blood Research Institute, The Blood Center of Wisconsin, 5Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Medical College of Wisconsin, 6Department of Pediatrics, The Medical College of Wisconsin, 7Department of Medicine, The Medical College of Wisconsin

JoVE 55063


 Immunology and Infection

Endothelialized Microfluidics for Studying Microvascular Interactions in Hematologic Diseases

1Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, 2Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, 3Aflac Cancer Center and Blood Disorders Service of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, 4Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University

JoVE 3958


 Bioengineering

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