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Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.

Anatomy of the Circulatory System

JoVE 10885

The human circulatory system consists of blood, blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart, around the body, and back to the heart, and the heart itself, which acts as a central pump. The systemic circuit supplies blood to the whole body, the coronary circuit supplies blood to the heart, and the pulmonary circuit supplies blood flow between the heart and lungs.

Blood travels from the right atrium to the right ventricle of the heart through the tricuspid valve, then from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery through the pulmonary valve. Pulmonary veins then carry the blood to the left atrium of the heart, from which it is carried to the left ventricle through the mitral valve. Finally, the left ventricle pumps blood to the aorta (the largest artery in the body) through the aortic valve. Arteries, which carry blood away from the heart, split and get progressively smaller, becoming arterioles and eventually a series of capillaries, the sites of gas exchange. Capillaries converge to become larger venules, and eventually merge into veins, which bring blood back to the heart. Humans have a double circulatory system, in which blood travels through the heart twice via the pulmonary and systemic circuits. First, the heart receives deoxygenated blood in its right side and then pumps it to the nearby pulmonary circuit, the capillaries that ar

 Core: Circulatory and Pulmonary Systems

Shunt Surgery, Right Heart Catheterization, and Vascular Morphometry in a Rat Model for Flow-induced Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

1Center for Congenital Heart Diseases, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Beatrix Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 2Research and Development Facility, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen

JoVE 55065

 Medicine

Central Venous Access Device Dressing Change

JoVE 10311

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT


Central venous access devices (CVAD), commonly known as central lines or central catheters, are large-bore intravenous (IV) catheters that are introduced into the central circulation. Typically, CVADs terminate in the superior vena…

 Nursing Skills

Anatomy of the Heart

JoVE 10886

The human heart is made up of three layers of tissue that are surrounded by the pericardium, a membrane that protects and confines the heart. The outermost layer, closest to the pericardium, is the epicardium. The pericardial cavity separates the pericardium from the epicardium. Beneath the epicardium is the myocardium, the middle layer, and the endocardium, the innermost layer. There are four chambers of the heart: the right atrium, the right ventricle, the left atrium, and the left ventricle. These compartments have two types of valves—atrioventricular and semilunar—that prevent blood from flowing in the wrong direction. The right atrium receives blood from the coronary sinus and the superior and inferior vena cavae. This blood goes into the right ventricle via the right atrioventricular (or tricuspid) valve, a flap of connective tissue that prevents the backflow of blood into the atrium. Then, the blood leaves the heart, traveling through the pulmonary semilunar valve into the pulmonary artery. Blood is then carried back into the left atrium of the heart by the pulmonary veins. Between the left atrium and the left ventricle, the blood is again passed through an atrioventricular valve that prevents backflow into the atrium. This atrioventricular valve is called the bicuspid (or mitral) valve. The blood passes through the left ventricle into the aorta

 Core: Circulatory and Pulmonary Systems

Needle Thoracostomy

JoVE 10233

Source: Rachel Liu, BAO, MBBCh, Emergency Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA


A tension pneumothorax is a life-threatening situation in which excess air is introduced into the pleural space surrounding the lung, either through trauma to the chest cavity or as a spontaneous leak of air from the lung itself. Air…

 Emergency Medicine and Critical Care

Whole Organ Tissue Culture

JoVE 5799

Whole organs can be cultured ex vivo using specialized bioreactors, with the goal of repairing or replacing entire organs. This method uses a donor organ that is stripped of all cells, leaving behind the three-dimensional structure, and is then repopulated with new cells. This video demonstrates the whole organ culture of lungs, and shows how a dynamic culture…

 Bioengineering

The Cardiac Cycle

JoVE 10887

The heart beats rhythmically in a sequence called the cardiac cycle—a rapid coordination of contraction (systole) and relaxation (diastole).

Electrical signals—sent from the sinoatrial (SA) node in the right atrial wall to the atrioventricular (AV) node between the right atrium and right ventricle—cause both atria to simultaneously contract. When the signal reaches the AV node, it pauses for approximately a tenth of a second, allowing the atria to contract and empty blood into the ventricles before they contract. The electrical impulses are then conducted by the bundle of His and propagated to the left and right bundle branches. The signal is then conducted by Purkinje fibers in the ventricular walls, inducing ventricular contraction and pumping blood out of the heart. During diastole (relaxation), the heart fills with blood, and the cycle is repeated.

 Core: Circulatory and Pulmonary Systems

Supramaximal Intensity Hypoxic Exercise and Vascular Function Assessment in Mice

1Division of Angiology, Heart and Vessel Department, Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV), 2Institute of Sport Sciences, Faculty of Biology and Medicine, University of Lausanne, 3Neonatal Research Laboratory, Clinic of Neonatology, Department Woman-Mother-Child, Lausanne University Hospital

JoVE 58708

 Behavior

Assessing Collagen and Elastin Pressure-dependent Microarchitectures in Live, Human Resistance Arteries by Label-free Fluorescence Microscopy

1Department of Cardiovascular and Renal Research, Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Southern Denmark, 2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, 3Department of Cardiac, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Odense University Hospital

JoVE 57451

 Bioengineering

Biodegradable Magnesium Stent Treatment of Saccular Aneurysms in a Rat Model - Introduction of the Surgical Technique

1Department of Neurosurgery, Kantonsspital Aarau, 2Neuro Lab, Research Group for Experimental Neurosurgery and Neurocritical Care, Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital and University of Bern, 3Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Kantonsspital Aarau

JoVE 56359

 Neuroscience

A Pre-Clinical Porcine Model of Orthotopic Heart Transplantation

1Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Peter Munk Cardiac Center, Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network, 2Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, 3Perfusion and Anesthesia Services, Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network, 4Department of Anesthesia and Pain Management, Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network, 5Department of Anesthesia, University of Toronto, 6Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto

JoVE 59197

 Medicine

Normothermic Ex Situ Heart Perfusion in Working Mode: Assessment of Cardiac Function and Metabolism

1Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta, 2Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta, 4Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Alberta, 5Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Alberta, 6Canadian National Transplant Research Program, 7Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta

JoVE 58430

 Medicine

Instrumentation of Near-term Fetal Sheep for Multivariate Chronic Non-anesthetized Recordings

1Département de sciences cliniques, CHUV, Université de Montréal, St-Hyacinthe, QC, 2Département d'obstetriques et de gynécologie, CHU Ste-Justine Research Centre, Université de Montréal, 3Département de neurosciences, CHU Ste-Justine Centre de recherche, Université de Montréal, 4Centre de recherche en reproduction animale (CRRA), Université de Montréal, St-Hyacinthe, QC

JoVE 52581

 Developmental Biology

Non-restraining EEG Radiotelemetry: Epidural and Deep Intracerebral Stereotaxic EEG Electrode Placement

1Department of Neuropsychopharmacology, Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (Bundesinstitut für Arzneimittel und Medizinprodukte, BfArM), 2Molecular and Cellular Cognition Lab, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (Deutsches Zentrum für Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen, DZNE)

JoVE 54216

 Neuroscience

Whole-cell Patch-clamp Recordings of Isolated Primary Epithelial Cells from the Epididymis

1School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, 2Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 4Shanghai Institute for Advanced Immunochemical Studies, ShanghaiTech University

JoVE 55700

 Developmental Biology

Invasive Hemodynamic Assessment for the Right Ventricular System and Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in Mice

1Beijing Key Laboratory of Pre-clinical Research and Evaluation for Cardiovascular Implant Materials, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Centre for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 2Laboratory Animal Center, Peking University, 3Center of Cardiac Surgery for Adults, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Centre for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 60090

 JoVE In-Press

Pre-clinical Model of Cardiac Donation after Circulatory Death

1Centre de recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CRCHUM), 2Deparment of pharmacology and physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal, 3Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network, 4Department of surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal

JoVE 59789

 Medicine

Protocol and Guidelines for Point-of-Care Lung Ultrasound in Diagnosing Neonatal Pulmonary Diseases Based on International Expert Consensus

1Department of Neonatology and NICU, Beijing Chaoyang District Maternal and Child Healthcare Hospital, 2The Neonatal Lung Ultrasound Training Base, Chinese College of Critical Ultrasound, 3Emergency Department, Cattinara University Hospital, 4Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Medical University Graz, 5Faculty of Medicine, University of Novi Sad, Radiology Department, Institute for Children and Adolescents Health Care of Vojvodina, 6Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Pediatric Service Hospital Joan XXIII Tarragona, University Rovira i Virgil, 7Division of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Cohen Children's Medical Center, 8Department of Neonatology, Children's Hospital of Soochow University, 9Department of Neonatology, Udine University Hospital, 10Center for Newborn Care, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, 11Division of Neonatology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 12Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 13Division of Neonatology and NICU, Cook County Children's Hospital, University of Illinois, 14Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Taipei Medical University, 15Department of Pediatrics and Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, 16Department of Pediatrics, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Xinxiang Medical University, 17Department of Ultrasound, GE Healthcare, 18Intensive Care Unit, Zhejiang Hospital, 19Collaborative Innovation Center for Maternal and Infant Health Service Application Technology, Quanzhou Medical College, 20Department of Ultrasound, Beijing Children's Hospital Affiliated with Capital Medical University, 21Department of Neonatology and NICU, Tai'an City Central Hospital of Shandong Province, 22Department of Intensive Care Unit, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine

JoVE 58990

 Medicine

Induction and Phenotyping of Acute Right Heart Failure in a Large Animal Model of Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

1Research and Innovation Unit, RHU BioArt Lung 2020, Marie Lannelongue Hospital, 2Phenotypic and Biomarker Core Laboratory, Cardiovascular Institute, Stanford University, 3Department of pathology, Marie Lannelongue Hospital, 4Department of pathology, UCSF School of Medicine

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58057

 JoVE In-Press

Generation of Human 3D Lung Tissue Cultures (3D-LTCs) for Disease Modeling

1Comprehensive Pneumology Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität and Helmholtz Zentrum Munich, 2German Center of Lung Research (DZL), 3Translational Lung Research and CPC-M bioArchive, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Comprehensive Pneumology Center Munich DZL/CPC-M, 4Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lung Bioengineering and Regeneration, Lund University, 5Wallenberg Center for Molecular Medicine, Lund University, 6Stem Cell Centre, Lund University, 7Asklepios Fachkliniken Munich-Gauting, 8Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado

JoVE 58437

 Medicine
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