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Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of Copd include Chronic bronchitis and Pulmonary emphysema.

Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension and Assessment of Right Ventricular Function in the Piglet

1Surgical Research Lab, Marie Lannelongue Hospital, 2Department of Pathology, Marie Lannelongue Hospital, 3Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Marie Lannelongue Hospital, 4Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital of Rennes, 5INSERM U999 Paris-Sud University

JoVE 53133


 Medicine

Assessment of the Cytotoxic and Immunomodulatory Effects of Substances in Human Precision-Cut Lung Slices

1Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Biomedical Research in Endstage and Obstructive Lung Disease Hannover (BREATH), 2Institute for Pathology, Hannover Medical School, Biomedical Research in Endstage and Obstructive Lung Disease Hannover (BREATH), 3Division of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Klinikum Region Hannover (KRH), 4Department of Cardiothoracic, Transplantation and Vascular Surgery (HTTG), Hannover Medical School, Biomedical Research in Endstage and Obstructive Lung Disease Hannover (BREATH), 5Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, RWTH Aachen University, 6Institute for Immunology, Hannover Medical School, Biomedical Research in Endstage and Obstructive Lung Disease Hannover (BREATH)

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JoVE 57042


 JoVE In-Press

Assessment of Pulmonary Capillary Blood Volume, Membrane Diffusing Capacity, and Intrapulmonary Arteriovenous Anastomoses During Exercise

1Division of Pulmonary Medicine, University of Alberta, 2Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, University of Alberta, 3Divisions of Critical Care and Cardiology, University of Alberta, 4Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Alberta, 5G.F. MacDonald Centre for Lung Health

JoVE 54949


 Medicine

Automated Measurement of Pulmonary Emphysema and Small Airway Remodeling in Cigarette Smoke-exposed Mice

1Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital - Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, University of Cambridge - Addenbrooke's Hospital, 3Lung Transplant Program, Brigham and Women's Hospital - Harvard Medical School, 4COPD and IPF Programs, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute

JoVE 52236


 Medicine

Human Lung Dendritic Cells: Spatial Distribution and Phenotypic Identification in Endobronchial Biopsies Using Immunohistochemistry and Flow Cytometry

1Immunology and Allergy Unit, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, 2Division of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, 3Divison of Infectious Diseases, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Umeå University

JoVE 55222


 Immunology and Infection

Right Ventricular Systolic Pressure Measurements in Combination with Harvest of Lung and Immune Tissue Samples in Mice

1Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo, 2Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, & Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 3Division of Pulmonary Medicine, New York University School of Medicine

JoVE 50023


 Immunology and Infection

An IL-8 Transiently Transgenized Mouse Model for the In Vivo Long-term Monitoring of Inflammatory Responses

1Department of Medicine, General Pathology Division, Cystic Fibrosis Translational Research Laboratory "D. Lissandrini", University of Verona, 2Corporate Preclinical R&D, Chiesi Farmaceutici S.p.A., 3Department of Diagnostic and Public Health, Microbiology Division, University of Verona, 4Dipartimento di Scienze Medico-Veterinarie, University of Parma, 5Department of Biomedical Biotechnological and Translational Sciences, University of Parma, 6Department of Computer Science, University of Verona, 7Department of Neurological, Biomedical and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, 8Cystic Fibrosis Regional Center (CFC), AOUI Verona

JoVE 55499


 Immunology and Infection

Respiratory Exam I: Inspection and Palpation

JoVE 10028

Source: Suneel Dhand, MD, Attending Physician, Internal Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Disorders of the respiratory system with a chief complaint of shortness of breath are among the most common reasons for both outpatient and inpatient evaluation. The most obvious visible clue to a respiratory problem will be whether the patient is displaying any signs of respiratory distress, such as fast respiratory rate and/or cyanosis. In a clinical situation, this will always require emergent attention and oxygen therapy. Unlike pathology in other body systems, many pulmonary disorders, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and pneumonia, can be diagnosed by careful clinical examination alone. This starts with a comprehensive inspection and palpation. Keep in mind that in non-emergency situations the patient's complete history will have been taken already, gaining important insight into exposure histories (e.g., smoking), which could give rise to specific lung diseases. This history can then confirm physical findings as the examination is performed.


 Physical Examinations I

Respiratory Exam II: Percussion and Auscultation

JoVE 10041

Source: Suneel Dhand, MD, Attending Physician, Internal Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Learning the proper technique for percussion and auscultation of the respiratory system is vital and comes with practice on real patients. Percussion is a useful skill that is often skipped during everyday clinical practice, but if performed correctly, it can help the physician to identify underlying lung pathology. Auscultation can provide an almost immediate diagnosis for a number of acute pulmonary conditions, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, pneumonia, and pneumothorax. The areas for auscultating the lungs correspond to the lung zones. Each lung lobe can be pictured underneath the chest wall during percussion and auscultation (Figure 1). The right lung has three lobes: the superior, middle, and inferior lobes. The left lung has two lobes: the superior and inferior lobes. The superior lobe of the left lung also has a separate projection known as the lingual. Figure 1. Anatomy of lungs with respect to the chest wall. An approximate projection of lungs and their fissures and lobes


 Physical Examinations I

Blood Pressure Measurement

JoVE 10083

Source: Meghan Fashjian, ACNP-BC, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston MA

The term blood pressure (BP) describes lateral pressures produced by blood upon the vessel walls. BP is a vital sign obtained routinely in hospital and outpatient settings, and is one of the most common medical assessments performed around the world. It can be determined directly with the intra-arterial catheter or by indirect method, which is a non-invasive, safe, easily reproducible, and thus most used technique. One of the most important applications of BP measurements is the screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of hypertension, a condition that affects almost one third of the U.S. adult population and is one of the leading causes of the cardiovascular disease. BP can be measured automatically by oscillometry or manually by auscultation utilizing a sphygmomanometer, a device with an inflatable cuff to collapse the artery and a manometer to measure the pressure. Determination of the pulse-obliterating pressure by palpation is done prior to auscultation to give a rough estimate of the target systolic pressure. Next, the examiner places a stethoscope over the brachial artery of the patient, inflates the cuff above the expected systolic pressure, and then auscultates while deflating the cuff and o


 Physical Examinations I

Using In Vivo and Tissue and Cell Explant Approaches to Study the Morphogenesis and Pathogenesis of the Embryonic and Perinatal Aorta

1Yale Cardiovascular Research Center, Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, 2Department of Neurology, Yale University School of Medicine, 3Department of Neurology, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine

JoVE 56039


 Developmental Biology

An All-on-chip Method for Rapid Neutrophil Chemotaxis Analysis Directly from a Drop of Blood

1Institute of Applied Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2University of Science and Technology of China, 3Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, 4Department of Biosystems Engineering, University of Manitoba, 5Seven Oaks General Hospital, 6Department of Immunology, University of Manitoba, 7Department of Biological Sciences, University of Manitoba

JoVE 55615


 Immunology and Infection

Cecal Ligation and Puncture-induced Sepsis as a Model To Study Autophagy in Mice

1Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 2Department of Medicine, Renal Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 3First Department of Critical Care Medicine and Pulmonary Services, University of Athens Medical School, Evangelismos Hospital, Athens, Greece

JoVE 51066


 Immunology and Infection

Adapting the Electrospinning Process to Provide Three Unique Environments for a Tri-layered In Vitro Model of the Airway Wall

1Division of Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering, University of Nottingham, 2Laboratory of Biophysics and Surface Analysis, School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, 3Division of Immunology and Allergy, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, University of Nottingham, 4Division of Respiratory Medicine, School of Clinical Sciences, University of Nottingham, 5NIHR Respiratory Biomedical Research Unit, University of Leicester, 6School of Sport, Exercise, and Health Sciences, Loughborough University

JoVE 52986


 Bioengineering

Percussion

JoVE 10136

Source: Jaideep S. Talwalkar, MD, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT

Simply stated, percussion refers to the striking of one object against another to produce sound. In the early 1700s, an Austrian inn-keeper's son, named Leopold Auenbrugger, discovered that he could take inventory by tapping his father's beer barrels with his fingers. Years later, while practicing medicine in Vienna, he applied this technique to his patients and published the first description of the diagnostic utility of percussion in 1761. His findings faded into obscurity until the prominent French physician Jean-Nicolas Corvisart rediscovered his writings in 1808, during an era in which great attention was focused on diagnostic accuracy at the bedside.1 There are three types of percussion. Auenbrugger and Corvisart relied on direct percussion, in which the plexor (i.e. tapping) finger strikes directly against the patient's body. An indirect method is used more commonly today. In indirect percussion, the plexor finger strikes a pleximeter, which is typically the middle finger of the non-dominant hand placed against the patient's body. As the examiner's finger strikes the pleximeter (or directly against the surface of the patient's body)


 Physical Examinations I

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